O{Zj/Lo ts{

gf]6 M n]vsn] eGg vf]h]sf] s'/fx? /fd|/L a'em\g s[kof n]vssf] ;Gb]z k9\g'xf];\ .

1.1

dxTjk"0f{ k|Zg

O{zfOTj ;+;f/sf] 7"nf wd{x?sf] Pp6f wd{ xf]Og gtf o;n] s'g} ts{;+Ët x'g] lsl;dsf s'g} s'/f g} ub{5 eg] lsg s;}n] O{;fOTjdf ljZjf; u/f]; < s] a'4 jf df]xDdbn] pgLx?sf wfld{s bfaLx?sf] s'g} k|df0f lbPsf 5g < oL 7"nf wd{x?df Ps 5f]6f] lg/LIf0f ugf{n] t'?Gt} xfdL ltgLx?df ePsf uNtLx?nfO{ b]Vg / k|dfl0ft ug{ ;S5f} . a'4n] ;Totfsf] vf]hL u/]tfklg pgn] slxNo} e]§fpg ;s]gg\ . df]xDdbn] rfFlx ;TotfnfO{ e]§fPsf] bfaL u/]tfklg pgn] o;nfO{ slxNo} k|sfz kf/]gg . o]z"n] dfq} ;Totfsf] cyf{t k/d]Zj/sf] ;To ePsf] s'/fnfO{ bfaL ug'{eof] / xfdLn] o;}nfO{ dfq k5\ofpg'kb{5 . cjZo, ha xfdL pxfFnfO{ k/d]Zj/sf] ;To eg]/ eGb5f}, xfdL ToxfF k/d]Zj/ x'g' ePsf] s'/fnfO{ cg'dfg ub{5f} .

1.2

b]lvg' g} ljZjf; ug'{ xf] eGg] s'/f ;fFrf] xf] eg] lsg s;}n] k/d]Zj/ 5 eg]/ ljZjf; ug'{ < olb k/d]Zj/ x'gx'Gg eg], gf;/tsf] o]z" pxfFsf] k'q xf]Og, gtf ToxfF s'g} cfTdf ljz]if u/L kljq cfTdf x'g'x'G5, / afOan k/d]Zj/sf] jrg xf]Og lsgeg] pxfFsf] cl:tTj 5}g .

1.3

olb of] ;fFrf] xf] eg], d08nL Ps 7"nf] x'n geP/ e|d xf], / o;sf] g]t[Tj ug]{ rf]/x? jf 5Ssfpg] snfsf/x? gePklg, e|ldt JolQmx? x'g . olb To;f] xf] eg] ToxfF g}lts tf}/df s'g} ;xL jf v/fa s'/f 5}g / sfg"gn] dfGotf u/]sf] jf gu/]sf tyf gLltnfO{ sfod /fVg] h:tf s'/fx? dfq} ePsf] ;DefjgfnfO{ xfdLn] :jLsf/ ug'{kb{5 .

1.4

em§} x]bf{ 9L6 h:tf] b]lvPtfklg c?nfO{ bf]if nufpg] lsl;dsf] o; b[li6sf]0fdf s'g} c;n s'/f eP h:t} b]lvG5 . s'g} s'/f Psl5g b]vf kb{5 / s]xL ;do cl:tTjdf /x]/ x/fP/ hfg]5 eg] h:tf] nfUnf . j:t'sf] lglZrt cfsf/, lk08 / ?k eP h:tf] b]lvG5 . z'?b]lv cGt;Ddsf] ltgLx?sf] cl:tTjsf] s'/fnfO{ dflg;x?n] kQf nufpF5g / Pslbg xfdL nufot ;a} s'/fx? cl:tTjaf6 x/fP/ hfg]5g eGg] s'/f klg yfxfF u5{g . To;f] xf] eg] lsg xfdL vfg], lkpg] / df]hdHhf gug]{ t < lsgls olb ToxfF :ju{ 5}g eg], ToxfF gs{ klg 5}g / lsg xfdL xfd|f] ljj]sdf b'lvt eP/ a:g] t <

1.5

dfG5]sf] ;w}el/ hLpg] uDeL/ rfxfgfnfO{ ;Gt'li6 kfg{ dfG5]n] g} k/d]Zj/nfO{ kQf nufPsf x'g eg]/ w]/}n] ljZjf; ug]{ u5{g . ;dfhnfO{ Jojl:yt kfg{ / sf]nfxn lgoGq0f ug{ dfG5]n] k/d]Zj/nfO{ k|of]u u5{g tfls s;}n] s'g} s'/f lagf g} hLljt /xg ;sf]; . o;nfO{ clxn] xfdLn] ;Eotf eg]/ eg]sf 5f} . s] k/d]Zj/ eg]sf] dfG5]sf] sNkgfsf] aofg dfq} xf] < s] k/d]Zj/n] dfG5]nfO{ agfpg'eof] jf dfG5]n] k/d]Zj/nfO{ agfof] < olb oL ljifox?nfO{ xfdLn] ;dfwfg ug{sf] lglDt afOannfO{ k|of]u ug{ rfxfG5f} eg] lgDg lnlvt s'/fnfO{ k|dfl0ft gu/];Dd xfdLn] s'g} k|df0fnfO{ e]§fpg] 5}gf} .

s= k/d]Zj/ x'g'x'G5 .
v= cfTdfsf] ;+;f/ klg /x]sf] 5 .
u= v|Li6 k/d]Zj/sf] k'q x'g'x'G5 .
3= afOan k/d]Zj/sf] jrg xf] .

1.6

o;af/] ;f]Rg'xf]; .

xfd|f ;a} ts{x?nfO{ k|of]u u/]/ oL dflysf s'/fx?nfO{ xfdLn] ls t k|dfl0ft ug'{kb{5 jf ;a} wd{x? em'§f x'g / ;a}nfO{ k"0f{ ?kn] gi6 ug'{kb{5 jf jf:tf ug'{x'b}g eg]/ lgrf]8 lgsfNg' kb{5 . ztflJbcf} b]lv lj1fgn] k/d]Zj/sf] cl:tTj c? s]xL geP/ bGt] syf jf sfNklgs syf aRrfx? h:t} sfNklgs s'/fx?df ljZjf; /fVg cfjZos c1fgtfsf] vfFrf] kg]{ s'/fx? h:t} x'g eg]/ k|dfl0ft ug{ vf]Hb} cfO/x]sf 5g .

1.7

ljZj cl:tTjdf cfPsf] a]nfdf To;} ;do hLjgsf] rs| / s|d ljsf;sf] rfn klg b]vf k¥of] eg]/ cfˆgf] lzIffnfO{ cfwfl/t kfg]{ s]xL j}1flgsx?sf ljZjf; klg /x]sf 5g . oL j}1flgsx?n] cfˆgf] lzIffnfO{ log} s'/fx?df nufPsf 5g eg], cGo dflg;x?n] rflxF ;a} cj:yfx?n] crfgs Ps o:tf] ;donfO{ lgdf0f{ u¥of] ls h;df hLjg pTkfbg x'gnfO{ plrt jftfj/0f ;[hgf u/]sf] lyof] / o;/L hLjg b]vf k/]sf x'g eg]/ ljZjf; u5{g . o; hLjgsf] lemNsfn] crDd k|sf/sf] aflx/L s'g} klg ;xfotfljgf g} cfkm}df ljsf; x'g yfNof] / kfFr 1fg]lGb|ox?sf] ljsf; u¥of] / cfˆm}df rËfO{ ub}{ pTkfbg ug{ yfNof] . o;n] cjZo klg Pcf]G; ;do lnPsf] lyof], t/ clxn] xfdLn] hfg]sf hLjg / d[To'sf] ?kdf o;sf] ljsf; eof] .

1.8

b'ljwf

cjZo g} o;n] xfdLnfO{ ca hl6n k|Zgx?df NofpFb5 .

1.9

olb s:dLs -P]l/s_ laikmf]6g a|Xdf08df ePsf] eP, ToxfF a|Xdf08 ePsf] x'g'kb{5 .    
of] sxfFaf6 cfof] t <
@= ;a} tTjx? Ps;fy Ps 7fpFdf cfof] h;af6 hLjg b]vf k¥of], oL tTjx? sxfFaf6
cfP <

1.10

hLjgnfO{ hLljt /fVg s]xL cTofjZos s'/fx? h:t} kfgL, 3fd, k|sfz / s'g} lsl;dsf] vfgfsf] cfjZostf kb{5 . vfgf cfkm}df Ps lsl;dsf] hLjg xf] To;}n] of] klg Ps ;x:o g} ePsf] 5 . cjZo g} xfdL /;folgs kf}li6s tTjx?sf af/]df s'/f ug};S5f}, t/ ltgLx? s;/L xfdL ;dIf cfOk'u] jf xfdL s;/L tL ePsf 7fpFx?;Dd k'Uof} < o:tf kf}li6s tTjx? sxfFaf6 cfP / hLjgnfO{ hLljt /fVg cfjZos kf}li6s tTjx? s;/L x'g ;s] <

1.11

s] tkfO{n] ljZjf; ug{ ;Sg'x'G5 <

ha d Pp6f 7"nf] cfw'lgs zx/af6 eP/ hfFb} lyP, d}n] Pp6f laikmf]6gnfO{ b]v] h;n] xfjfdf y'k} 6g 6'qmf6fqmLx?nfO{ ˆofFs]sf] lyof] . Ps 7"nf] w'Fjfsf] afbn h:t}u/L afo'd08ndf kmnfd, l;;f, sf7, Knfli6s tyf cGo ;fdfu|Lx?nfO{ htfefjL p8fO/x]sf] lyof] . t/ ha oL w'nf]x? jf 6'qmf6fqmLx? e'O{df em/] / Pslqt eP, d}n] ltgLx?af6 Ps ;'Gb/ 6]lnlehg ag]sf] b]v] . clg To;df cfjZos ;a} s'/fx? h:t} ls ljw't k|jfx sf]8{, t:jL/ 6\o"a, s|f]d lgoGq0f ug]{ j6g cflb ;a}nfO{ o:tf] snfTds ?kn] /flvPsf] lyof] ls o;nfO{ lgdf{0f ug]{sf] gfpFnfO{ ;d]t b]Vg ;lsGYof] . cs:dft 36]sf] 36gfx?af6 :j]OlRt ?kn] hDdf ePsf 6'qmf6fqmLx?af6 olt /fd|f] ?kdf lgdf{0f ePsf] s'/f ckTofl/nf 5g t/ cjZo g} o;sf] cfˆg} phf{ gePsf]n] d}n] o;nfO{ ljw'lto phf{;Fu hf]8\g' k¥of] / h;/L d}n] hf]8], o;df s'g} klg ;d:ofljgf g} o;n] cfˆgf] sfdnfO{ k|:t't ug{ yfNof] . s] tkfO{ dnfO{ ljZjf; ug{;Sg' x'G5 <

1.12

olb ljZjf; ug'{x'G5 eg] cem} d;Fu s]xL s'/fx? 5g h;n] tkfO{nfO{ s'g} klg ;xfosljgf g} lx8\g cg'dlt lbG5 / d oL s'/fx? tkfO{nfO{ ljqmL ug{ rfxfG5' . o;sf] cltl/Qm ;+;f/sf a'l4dfg egfpFbfx? of] eGbf klg cgy{s syfx?nfO{ ljZjf; ug]{ ub{5g . c? crDd nfUbf] s'/frflxF s] 5 eg] o:tf s'/fx?nfO{ ljZjf; ug]{ / ;+;f/e/L l;sfpg] klg ub{5g . d o;nfO{ j0f{g ub{5' .

1.13

ljj]szLn gd"gf

dfgj z/L/ xfd|f] l6eL ;]6x? eGbf klg Ps;o u'0ff hl6n x'g eGg' cltjfbL gxf]nf . l6eLn] cem} af]Nb}g . ltgLx?n] x]g]{, ;'Gg], ;'F3\g], :jfblng], cg'ej ug]{ lgsf] kfg]{ jf k"j{pTkfbg ug]{ sfd ub}{gg\ . b'Mv, si6, cfgGb, k|]d, 3[0ff, 8/ jf pknAwLnfO{ k|s6 ug]{ efjgfx? ltgLx?df x'b}gg\ . ltgLx? Ps 7fpFaf6 csf]{ 7fpFdf hfg] s'g} dfWodx? ltgLx?df 5}gg\ gtf ltgLx?;Fu ldNbf] jftfj/0f g} ltgLx?n] cfˆgf ljj]såf/f ;[li6 ug{ ;S5g . t/}klg o:tf jf:tljstfsf] cl3 ljBfyL{x?nfO{ sIff sf]7fdf /flvG5 / 1fg ePsf] lzlIft dflg;x? eg]/ ;dfhdf lrlgg] dflg;x?n] hLjg s'g} klg ljj]szLn ;'li6stf{ljgf g} cs:dftsf] 36gfåf/f x'g cfP eg]/ l;sfpg] ub{5g .

1.14

xfdL slnNo} ge]6]sf jf gb]v]sf snfsf/x?af6 agfOPsf /fd|f /fd|f t:jL/x?nfO{ lsg]/ xfd|f 3/sf leQfx?df 6fF:g] ub{5f}, t/ To;nfO{ agfpg] s'g} snfsf/ ePsf]df xfdL lg;+sf]r 5f} . lsg < lsgls ltgLx? olt k"0f{ ?kn] agfOPsf x'g ls To;} cfPsf] xf] eg]/ s;}n] eGg ;Sb}gg . d}n] d]/f] l6eL agfpg] dfG5]nfO{ slxNo} e]l6g, t/ klg of] Ps cs:dftsf] lj:kmf]6gaf6 s'g} Ps ;dosf] If0fdf ha ;a} kl/l:yltx? Psbd} cg's'n ePsf] a]nfdf x'g cfof] h;n] ubf{ k"0f{?ksf /ËLg t:jL/x?nfO{ o;sf] 7Ls 7f8f] / t];|f] ?kdf x'g]u/L ;[li6 ul/ ;Sof] eg]/ ljZjf; ug{ ;lSbg, o:tf] s'/fnfO{ ljZjf; ug{' Ps d"v{ jf ljj]slxg JolQm x'g'kb{5 eg]/ elgPtfklg, xhf/f} ljBfyL{x?n] s'g}klg k|Zg}ljgf o:tf s'/fnfO{ :jLsf/ ub{} cfO/x]sf 5g . s'g} klg k|fljlws pTkfbgeGbf clt hl6n ePtfklg dfgjLo z/L/ jf cGo o:tf hLjgsf gd"gfx? -hLjx?_ eo+s/sf] crfgs ePsf] 36gfsf] kl/0ffdaf6 lg:s]sf] xf] eg]/ ljZjf; ub{5g .

1.15

olb xfdL k|To]s k"0f{ gd"gfsf gd"gfsf/, t:jL/sf snfsf/, 3/sf lzNksf/, k"nsf OlGhlgo/, df6f]sf efF8fsf s'dfn] x'G5g eg]/ ljZjf; ub{5f} eg], xfdL dfgj ePsf x'gfn] xfd|f] cl:tTj cfkm}n] o;sf] ;[li6stf{ x'gkb{5 eg]/ lg;+sf]r ?kdf ljZjf; ug'{kg]{ x'G5 . xfdL pxfFsf ;'Gb/ ;[li6x? xf} . xfdL s;}sf ;[li6x? ePsf x'gfn] pxfFnfO{ xfd|f] k/d]Zj/ eg]/ cf/fwgf ug]{x? eGbf s] sd x'g;S5f} < s] of] ts{ k"0f{ 5}g / < s] of] O{Zj/Lo ts{ ePsf] :ki6 5}g / < To;}sf/0fn] oxfF k/d]Zj/ x'g'x'Gg eg]/ xfdL OGsf/ ub{5f} eg], xfdL cfkm}n] cfˆgf] ;[li6nfO{ OGsf/ ub{5f} / of] ts{ ;+Ët 5}g .

1.16

k/d]Zj/ cl:tTjdf x'g'x'G5 eGg] s'/fsf] ;a}eGbf uxlsnf] k|df0f xfdL cfkm} ePsf] x'gfn] h'g s'/fnfO{ xfdLn] ts{k"0f{ tl/sfn] k|dfl0ft u/]sf 5f}, cfpg'xf]; xfd|f] hLjgdf Wofglbg' kg]{ ;a} eGbf dxTjk"0f{ k|Zg s] xf] jf x'g;S5 eg]/ x]/f}+ . clxn] x]g'{kg]{ k|Zg k/d]Zj/ sxfFaf6 cfpg'eof] < eGg] xf] . xfdL o; k|Zgsf] pQ/ lbg]5f} t/ o;sf] pQ/lbg' eGbf klxn] xfdLn] of] a'‰g' h?/L 5 ls ;a} k|Zgx?sf pQ/x? ;a} g} k|df0f ;lxt ;Gt'i6 kfg]{ u/L cfpF5g jf kfO{G5 eg]/ eGg cjZo klg ;lsFb}g . s'g} k|Zgx? c? k|Zgx?;Fu dfq} pQ/ lbOg ;Dej x'G5g . of] k|Zg klg ltgLx? dWo]sf] Ps xf] .

1.17

k/d]Zj/sf] cl:tTj

k/d]Zj/ x'g'x'G5 eg]/ ljZjf; ug]{ xfdL dWo s;}n] klg k/d]Zj/ cgGtb]lv cfpg'eof] jf pxfFsf] s'g} z'?jft gePsf] s'/fnfO{ ljZjf; ub{5g . ts{ ug]{ ljrf/nfO{ klxn] o;n] cgy{s h:t} b]lvPtfklg kl5 cy{k"0f{ x'g]5 . k/d]Zj/sf] z'?jftnfO{ ;dosf] lglZrt l;ldt ljGb'df b]vfpg cfjZos 5 eg]/ ;f]Rg]x?sf nflu, d s]xL k|Zgx?sf hjfkm klxn] lbg rfxfG5' . #=!$!% ;Fu z'?jft ePsf] P! sf] clGtd dfg s] xf] < ;a}eGbf 7"nf] c+s s'g xf'] < xfd|f] b}lgs hLjgdf ul0ft ;DaGwL y'k} s'/fx?nfO{ k|of]u ub{5f}, t;y{ oL b'O{j6f k|Zgx?sf pQ/ ;lhnf] x'gkb{5 . k"j{b]lv klZrd slt 6f9f 5 jf uf]nfsf/sf] cGTo sxfF x'G5 < prfO{ slt dfly 5 <

1.18

k/d]Zj/sf] zq'n] pxfF x'g'x'G5 cyf{t k/d]Zj/sf] cl:tTj 5 eg]/ ljZjf; u/]sf] rfFxfb}g . xfdL b}lgs hLjgdf z'?jft jf cGTo gePsf s'/fx?nfO{ k|of]u ul//x]sf] ePtfklg /f]s]/ ltgLx?nfO{ Wofglbg] ub}{gf} . xfdLn] tL s'/fnfO{ slxNo} z+sf ub}{gf} lsgsL k/d]Zj/sf] zq'n] uf]nfsf/sf] z'?jft jf cGTo 5ls 5}g eg]/ xfdLn] WofglbPsf] jf glbPsf] s'/fdf Tolt jf:tf ub}{g hlt k/d]Zj/sf] cl:tTjsf] s'/fdf ug]{ ub{5 . cgGtb]lv cl:tTjdf /xg'ePsf] k/d]Zj/n] cfˆgf] ;[li6;Fu 3lgi6 ;DaGw /fVg rfxfg'x'G5 / pxfFnfO{ xfdL ljZjf; ub{5f} ls eg]/ z}tfgn] hlxn] klg xfd|f] lrof] ul//x]sf] x'G5 . xfd|f] ;Lldt ljj]sn] yfxfF ug{ ;sf]; jf g;sf]; z'?jft jf cGTo yfxfF kfpg sl7g ePsf y'k} s'/fx?nfO{ xfdLn] k|of]u ub}{ cfO/x]sf 5f} / k/d]Zj/ klg tLdWo]sf] Ps x'g'x'G5 . d}n] k/d]Zj/sf] zq'sf] af/]df eg] / o;sf] af/]df xfdL kl5 x]g]{5f} .

1.19

k/d]Zj/n] ;[li6 ug'{ePsf] w]/}h;f] s'/fx?sf] z'?jft jf cGTo ePsf x'G5g eGb}df oL ;fdfGo gLltdf pxfF klg afFlwPsf] x'g'kb{5 eGg]rflxF cjZo xf]Og . k/d]Zj/ cfTdf xf] eg]/ w]/}n] ljZjf; u5{g / cfTdfnfO{ o; ef}lts gLlt4f/f /f]s]/ ;Lldt kf/]/ /fVg ;lsFb}g jf g;lsg]ul/ cl:tTjdf /flvPsf 5g . o;nfO{ xfd|f] ts{k"0f{ ljj]sn] s;/L a'‰g] < xfdLn] b]Vg jf dxz'; ug{ gl;sg] s'/fnfO{ dfOs|f]:sf]k -;'Idbz{s oGq_ sf] cfljisf/sf] ;+;f/nfO{ Ps 7"nf] b[io lbPsf] 5 . xfd|f] b}lgs hLjgnfO{ c;/ kfg]{ s'/fx? x'g . dfg]{ tyf lgsf] kfg]{ s'/fx? x'g . xfd|f] ef}lts z/L/ klg cfFvfn] b]Vg g;Sg] s/f}8f} sf]ifx?n] ldn]/ ag]sf x'G5g . xfd|f cfFvfn] b]Vg g;Sg] ePklg ltgLx? jf:tljs x'G5g .
!=!(
xf], tkfO{n] ;f]Rg'x'G5 d}n] clt p:sfP / Tof] ;fFrf] s'/f] xf] . dfOs|f]:sf]kdf x]l/g] lrhx? hlt ;fgf ePtfklg ltgLx? ef}lts -z/L/_ ePsf x'G5g / k/d]Zj/ rflxF cfTdf x'g'x'G5 / tL dWo]sf] Ps x'g;Sg' x'Gg . d}n] o;nfO{ ;dfj]z ug'{sf] Pp6} sf/0f eg]sf] k/d]Zj/sf] cl:tTjsf] ;DaGwdf b]lvg' ljZjf; ug'{ jf gug'{sf] sf/0f xf]Og eg]/ k|:t't ug'{ lyof] .

1.20

cflTds ;+;f/

ToxfF cflTds ;+;f/ /x]sf] 5 / To;nfO{ clxn] xfdL ljj]szLn tl/sfn] k|dfl0ft ug]{5f} . s'g} JolQmn] ufPsf] cfjfh4f/f pTkGg u/fPsf] sDkgn] lunf;nfO{ 6'qmfpg ;S5, t/ s] cfjfhnfO{ gfKg ;lsG5 < s] o;nfO{ b]Vg ;lsG5 < s] o;nfO{ 5'g ;lsG5 < o;sf] cfsf/ s:tf] x'G5 < o;sf] t/Ë / axg] s'/fnfO{ dfG5]n] afFWg ;S5g t/ s] of] ef}lts
-zf/Ll/s_ xf] < ef}lts ;+;f/nfO{ o;sf] 7"nf] k|efj kfg{ ;s]tfklg of] sbflk ef}lts s'/f] xf]Og . WjgLsf] zlQm eg]sf] cflTds ;fdfu|L xf] / h;4f/f zAbx?nfO{ hLjg lbOG5 .

1.21

ef}lts s'/fnfO{ ef}lts s'/fx?n] g} c;/ kfb{5 t/ cflTds s'/f h;n] ef}lts s'/fx?nfO{ c;/ kfg{ ;s]tfklg, ef}lts s'/fx?n] o;nfO{ l;w} k|efj kfg{ ;Sb}g . ljrf/n] ef}lts k|ltlqmof b]vfpgsf] nflu k|]/0ff lbPtfklg, ljrf/ cfkm} ef}lts s'/f xf]Og . olb ef}lts s'/fn] ef}lts s'/fnfO{ gi6 ub{5 -h:t}M ls aGb"ssf] uf]nLn] ef}lts z/L/nfO{_ eg], s'g s'/fn] rflxF cef}lts s'/fnfO{ gi6 ub{5 < Ps k|:tfjgf . ljrf/nfO{ rSs"n] jf uf]nLn] dfg{ ;S5 < ljrf/nfO{ klqm /fVg] dl:tisnfO{ tkfO{n] dfg{ ;Sg] s'/f ;fFrf] xf], t/ To;f] ug'{ eg]sf] kfgLnfO{ gi6 ug{ kfgL /flvPsf] efF8f]nfO{ gi6 ug'{ h:t} xf]Og / <

1.22

hLjgn] xfd|f] z/L/nfO{ b}lgs ?kdf ;~rfng u/]/ /fVb5 . hLjgsf] /Ë s:tf] 5 < o;sf] tf}n slt 5 < o;sf] cfsf/ s:tf] 5 < s] tkfO{n] To;nfO{ af]tndf /fVg ;Sg' x'G5 < ha s'g} JolQm d'6'df /St ;+rf/ geP/ /ut hd]/ db{5 eg], cfhsf] ;+;f/sf] k|fljlws ;fdfu|Lx?nfO{ k|of]u u/]/ d/]sf] dfG5]af6 hd]sf] /utnfO{ lgsfNg ;lsG5 < cjZo klg . t/ s] ca To; d[t z/L/ hLjgdf kmls{G5 xf]nf t < olb d/]sf] 5 eg] sbflk kmsf{P/ Nofpg ;lsGg . z/L/nfO{ d/dt ug{ ;s]tfklg, To;df cfTdf kmsf{pg ;lsGg . of] Ps OlGhg ;~rfng gePsf] sf/nfO{ d/dt u/]/ k'jf{:yfdf Nofpg' h:t} xf]Og .

1.23

ef}lts cfodnfO{ /fd|f];Fu b]Vg ;lsPtfklg clt dxTjk"0f{ eg] xf]Og . ef}lts s'/frflxF c? s]xL geP/ cflTds s'/fsf clwgdf ePsf] Ps ;fwf/0f ;]js dfq} xf], csf]{ zAbdf eGg'kbf{ h] s'/f b]lvG5g Tof] t s]jn gb]lvg] s'/fn] k|efj kf/]sf] jf lgoGq0fdf /x]sf s'/f dfq} x'g . ljrf/ / efjgfx?n] d]/f] z/L/nfO{ lgoGq0fdf /fVb5, cfgGb h:tf s'/fn] d sxfF / s;/L a:g] jf ga:g] s'/fsf] lgwf{/0f ub{5 . s] tkfO{n] slxNo} cfgGbsf] dfqfnfO{ b]Vg'ePsf] 5 < /L;n] s'g} ;DklQ jf slxn] sxLF dfG5]nfO{ ;d]t gi6 ug{ ;Sb5 . s] tkfO{n] /L;sf] cfsf/ jf /ËnfO{ slxNo} b]Vg' ePsf] 5 < cfkm'n] dg k/]sf dfG5]sf] nflu s'g} JolQmn] hLjg lbg ;Sb5 .

1.24

xfd|f] b}lgs hLjgdf xfdLnfO{ k|]/0ff lbg] / c;/ kfg]{ s'/fx? h:t} M k|]d, cfgGb, zflGt jf cGo gb]lvg] cflTds s'/fx? s:tf b]lvG5g < olb oL s'/fx? ef}lts xf]Ogg eg] cflTds x'g / olb oL s'/fx?nfO{ xfdLn] gb]v]tfklg jf:tljs x'g eg]/ :jLsf/ ub{5f} eg], ta xfdLn] ToxfF cflTds ;+;f/ ePsf] s'/fnfO{ ts{k"0f{ u/L :jLsf/ ul//x]sf x'G5f} .
olb hLjg cflTds xf] / z/L/ o;nfO{ c8\ofpg] efF8f] dfq}, z/L/ dl/;s]kl5 To;};Fu cfTdf klg db{5 ls eg]/ s;n] k|dfl0ft ug{ ;Sb5 < olb ef}lts s'/fnfO{ ef}lts s'/fn] g} gi6 ub{5 eg], cef}lts s'/fnfO{ s] s'/fn] gi6 ub{5 < olb d}n] xfjfdf uf]nL rnfP eg] s] xfjf d/]/ d]/f] v'§fdf emb{5 < gb]lvg] cflTds ;+;f/nfO{ OGsf/ ug'{ eg]sf] ljrf/, efjgf / ts{ ;a}nfO{ OGsf/ ug'{ xf] . of] ts{k"0f{ 5}g lsgls ts{ cfkm} klg cflTds xf], xf]Og / <

1.25

ljkl/t zlQm

ef}lts ;+;f/eGbf cflTds ;+;f/ >]i7 5 eGg] s'/fnfO{ ca xfdLn] ts{k"0f{ tl/sfn] b]vfPsf 5f} / k/d]Zj/ rflxF o;sf] ;[li6stf{ / ;a}eGbf d'Vo s]lGb|o x'g'x'G5 eg]/ lgisif{ lgsfNg ;Sb5f} . cflTds k|efjx? k|foM ;w} g} Ps csf{;Fu aflemg] / ljkl/t x'g] ub{5g lsgls d'Vo gd"gfsf/n] pxfFsf] cfˆg} p2]Zox? tkm{ ldNg] ul/ cufl8 a9fO /xg' x'G5 eg], csf]{ zlQmn] ;[li6stf{sf] ljkl/t eP/ sfd ul//x]sf] x'G5, To;f] xf] eg] xfdL o;/L eGg ;Sb5f} ls ToxfF Ps o:tf] zlQm /x]sf] 5 hf] k/d]Zj/sf] ;[li6sf] ljkl/t eP/ pxfFsf] of]hgfnO{ gi6 ug]{ tl/sfn] sfd ul//x]sf] 5 . clg o; zlQmnfO{ xfdL b'i6sf] bhf{ lbg ;S5f} lsgeg] b'i6sf] ;Dk"0f{ hu eg]sf] gi6 / Wj:t kfg'{ xf] .

1.26

o;/L xfdL ;+;f/df b'O{ lsl;dsf d'Vo zlQmx? ePsf] lgisif{df ts{k"0f{ tl/sfn] cfOk'u]sf 5f} . klxnf] zlQmn] ;[li6df lgdf{0fsf] sfd ub{5 eg] bf];|f] zlQmn] klxnf]n] lgdf{0f u/]sf] s'/fnfO{ gi6 kfg]{ sfd dfq} ub{5 . kfgL /fv]sf] lunf;nfO{ tf]8]/ To;df ePsf] kfgLnfO{ h;/L gi6 ug{ ;lSb}g To;/L g} z/L/nfO{ gi6 ugf{n] To;df ePsf] hLjgnfO{ gi6 ug{ ;lSb}g . cfpg'xf];, xfdLn] tfls{s tl/sfn] k|dfl0ft u/]sf s'/fx?nfO{ k'g/fjnf]sg u/f} . 

1.27

;+;f/df cflTds / ef}lts b'j}nfO{ lgoGq0fdf /fVg] gd"gfsf/ k/d]Zj/ ToxfF x'g'x'G5 .
@= pxfFn] l;4 tyf ;Gt'lnt u/]/ ;a} s'/fnfO{ lgdf{0f ug'{eof] .
#= k/d]Zj/sf] l;4 ;[li6nfO{ gi6 ug{ ToxfF csf]{ b'i6sf] zlQmn] klg ;+;f/df sfd
ul//x]sf] 5 .
$= k/d]Zj/nfO{ ;do / :yfgn] ;Lldt kfg{ ;lsGg lsgls pxfF cflTds cgGt k/d]Zj/
x'g'x'G5 .

1.28

k/d]Zj/sf] :jefj

k/d]Zj/sf] ;[li6sf] tfls{s d"NofÍg u/]/ k/d]Zj/sf] :jefjnfO{ hfGg ;lsG5 . dflg; ;[li6df ;a}eGbf ;j{>]i7 k|f0fL ePsf] x'gfn] p;n] k/d]Zj/sf] ljif]z :yfgnfO{ o; ;[li6df kfPsf] 5  eg]/ ts{ nufpg ;S5f} . dfG5]sf] efjgfTds -cflTds_ / ef}lts b'j} u'0fx?af6 p;sf] ;[li6stf{sf] af/]sf] w]/} s'/fnfO{ hfGg jf l;Sg ;Sb5f} . xfdLnfO{ k|]d ug{sf] nflu ;[li6stf{ k/d]Zj/n] k|]dnfO{ hfGg' kb{Yof] . o;f] ugf{sf] nflu, k/d]Zj/ cfkm} k|]d ePsf] s'/fnfO{ xfdL l;Sb5f} . cfgGb, zflGt, w}o{tf, bof, gd|tf tyf efjgfTds cGo s'/fx?nfO{ k|s6 ug{sf] nflu, k/d]Zj/;Fu klg oL ;a} s'/fx? 5g eGg] hfGb5f} . / o;df /L;, 8fxf / y'k} cGo s'/fx? k/d]Zj/sf] lgoGq0fdf /x]sf 5g eGg] klg a'‰b5f} .

1.29

k/d]Zj/n] dfG5]nfO{ b[Zo lbg'ePsf] x'gfn] of] Ifdtf pxfFdf klg /x]sf] 5 eg]/ hfGb5f} . ;'Fwg], ;'Gg], :jfblng] / 5'g] s'/fx?df klg log} s'/fx?df nfu' x'Fb5 eGg] klg hfG5f} . pxfFsf] ;[li6nfO{ hfFr u/]/ ;[li6stf{ ;DaGwL w]/} s'/fx?nfO{ hfGg ;s]tfklg ;a} s'/fx?nfO{ rflxF eg] cjZo xf]Og lsgls a|Xdf08sf] Pp6f ;fgf] s'gfdf dfq} b]lvg] ;fdYo{eGbf klg ljzfn sNkgf g} ug{ g;Sg] Ifdtf k/d]Zj/;Fu /x]sf] 5 .

1.30

xfd|f z/L/x?nfO{ x]/]/ ltgLx? OG8lkm{G; gfds /;fogx?n] el/Psf] s'/f yfxfF ug{ ;S5f} . ha xfd|f] z/L/df Psbd sl7g tgfj / b'MvfO{ x'G5 ta z/L/df OG8lkm{G; gfds /;fog lgSn]/ lgoGq0f ug]{ ub{5g . o;n] dfG5]sf] ;[li6stf{sf] af/] s] eGb5 < k/d]Zj/n] z/L/sf] sfd ug]{ zlQmdf xnrn ePsf] v08df r]tjfgL :j?k b'MvfO{nfO{ lbg'x'G5, t/ ;tfj6 jf oftgfsf] ;fdfu|L :j?k xf]Og . xfd|f] z/L/n] cfkm} lgsf] ug{ ;Sg] Ifdtf b]vfpg' eg]sf] eTs]sf] 6'6]sf] s'/fnfO{ lgsf] ug{sf] nflu k/d]Zj/ bofn' x'g'x'G5 eGg] s'/fnfO{ k|sfz kfb{5 . olb To;f] xf]Og eg] lsg pxfFn] hfFr]/ ;Gt'lnt /fVgsf] nflu bofn' k|0ffnLnfO{ pxfFn] ljsf; ug'{ x'GYof] xf]nf < OGsf/ ug{ g;lsg] tl/sfn] pxfFn] ug'{eof] / tL ;a} s'/fsf] ;§f c;n / bofljlxg / :jfy{sf] ;§fdf bofn' / lg:jfy{ tl/sfn] ug'{eof] eGg] s'/fnfO{ xfdLn] ts{k"0f{ eP/ x]g'{ kb{5 .

1.31

k/d]Zj/sf] bofn' :jefjnfO{ xfdL pxfFn] lbg'ePsf] /f]u;Fu n8\g ;Sg] k|0ffnLaf6 :ki6;Fu b]Vg ;S5f} . o; j/bfgaf6 xfdLn] b'O{j6f dxTjk"0f{ k/d]Zj/sf] :jefjnfO{ b]Vg ;S5f} .

1.32

pxfFn] cfˆgf] lj/f]wL zlQm /x]sf] / To; zlQmn] pxfFn] ;[li6 ug'{ePsf] ;a} s'/fx?nfO{
gi6 ug{ rfxfg] s'/fnfO{ hfGg' x'G5 . o;}sf/0fn] pxfFn] cfˆgf] ;[li6nfO{ o:tf] ljif]z lsl;dsf] ;'/Iffsf] k|0ffnL lbg'x'G5 . olb xfd|f] gi6sf] nflu ToxfF s'g} zlQmx? gePsf] eP, ToxfF /f]u;Fu n8\g ;Sg] Ifdtf x'g] lyPg .

@= o:tf gi6sf/L zlQmx?af6 xfd|f] k/d]Zj/n] xfdLnfO{ ;'/Iff lbg' ePsf] sf/0fn] pxfFsf] k|]d / jf:tfnfO{ xfdL dfGotf lbg ;S5f} . lsg pxfFn] xfdLnfO{ of] j/bfg lbg'x'G5 t <

1.33

##oL b'j} jf:tljstfn] xfd|f] ljj]szLn jf:tfsf] dfu ub{5, t/ o;sf] cltl/Qm xfd|f] ;[li6stf{sf] o:tf] z/L/ xfdLnfO{ lbg' ePsf] 5 ls o;n] cfkm} rËfO{ ug]{ sfd klg ub{5 / o;n] aflx/L cfs|d0faf6 dfq} xfdLnfO{ arfpg] xf]Og ls hfGb}ghfgL cfkm}n] cfkm}nfO{ u/]sf] 3fpaf6 klg ;'/Iff k|bfg ub{5 .

1.34

csf]{ efu

;[li6stf{n] xfd|f] nflu ug'{ePsf] jf:tf / k|]dnfO{ ts{k"0f{ u/L x]l/;s]kl5, ToxL ljj]s cg';f/ ljkl/t zlQmnfO{ klg hfFr ug'{kg]{ jf:tfljstfn] dnfO{ jfWo u/fpFb5 . pbfx/0fsf] nflu o'4åf/f gi6 ePsf hLjgsf] u0fgf ugf{n] ;[li6stf{sf]?kdf z+sfsf] tTj pTkGg u/fpFb5 . hGdbfg} n'nf, nË8f tyf s'?k ;Gtfgn] k/d]Zj/sf] csf]{ t:jL/ k|:t't u/fpFb5 . u/La, b}lgs vfgfsf] nflu ef}tfl/Psf] tyf /f]ux?n] u|l;t dflg;x?n] csf]{ t:jL/ b]vfpFb5 . o:tf 8/nfUbf s'/fnfO{ cg'dlt lbg] ;[li6stf{nfO{ s;/L ljj]szLn tl/sfn] arfpg] cfzf /fV5f} <

1.35

lgoGq0fsf] nflu o'2

lgbf]{ifx?sf hLjgdf b]vfkg]{ o; lsl;dsf sl7gfO{x? pxfFsf] of]hgfsf] pTkfbgaf6 cfPsf] xf]Og t/ o;sf] ;§fdf ktg ePsf] g}ltstf cyf{t w]/}n] kfk eg]/ eGg] cflTds hLjf0f'af6 ePsf] xf] eGg] ts{ nufcf] . k/d]Zj/n] ;[li6 ug'{ ePsf] ;+;f/df pxfFn] o; k|sf/sf] hLjf0f'nfO{ ;[li6 ug'{ePg, t/ csf]{ ;fdYo{n] h'g ;fdYo{af6 arfpgsf] nflu pxfFn] /f]u;Fu n8\g ;Sg] Ifdtf ePsf] k|0ffnL agfpg' eof] . ktgsf] ;fdYo{n] s;/L ;+;f/df k|j]z kfof] eg]/ hfGg' clxn] dxTjk"0f{ 5}g t/ To;sf] cl:tTj 5 eg]/ hfg] dfq clxn]sf] nflu kof{Kt 5 . xfd|f jl/kl/ ePsf] ;[li6n] ljZjf; g} ug{ g;Sg] s|d / ;Gt'ngnfO{ b]vfO{/x]sf] 5 eGg] s'/fnfO{ s;}n] klg OGsf/ ug{ ;Sb}gg\ . olt l;4 k|sf/n] ;[li6 ug'{x'g] k/d]Zj/n] o:tf] sf]nfxn Nofpg] s'/fnfO{ klg ;[li6 ug'{eof] eg]/ dfGg c;Dej 5 . pxfFsf] l;4 ;[li6df o:tf] ktg -gi6_ u/fpg] s'/fn] t pxfFsf] /L;nfO{ dfq} hgfpF5 . lg/Gt/ ;[li6 ul//xg] s'/fb]lv pxfFsf] WofgnfO{ o; ljkl/t zlQmn] ubf{ cGt} lvr]sf] x'gfn] ;'/Iffsf] dfu{ tof/ kfg{ pxfFnfO{ cfjZostf eof] . pxfFsf] Wofg lgdf{0faf6 ca ;'/Iff lbg] / k'g{lgdf{0fts{ kl/jt{g x'g] eof] .

1.36

o; b[Zosf] tfls{s ljrf/df xfd|f] cfˆg} e"ldsfnfO{ jf:tf ug'{x'b}g, lsgls xfdL gi6 jf kltt eP/ klg gi6 ug]{ o; zlQmnfO{ of]ubfg lbO/x]sf x'G5f}, ljif]zul/ o'4sf] If]qdf xfdLn] o;f] ul//x]sf x'G5f} . ;[li6nfO{ :jtGq OR5f lbg' eg]sf] ;[li6stf{sf] cjwf/0ff x'g;S5, t/ o; :jtGq OR5fnfO{ rflxF cem b'i6tftkm{ k|of]u ug'{ eg]sf] rflxF ;[li6 -dfG5]sf k|j[lQ_ xf] . kfs{df x'Fbf Pp6f lktfn] cfˆgf] ;fgf] 5f]/LnfO{ eg]sf] l;d]G6 ePlt/ gbf}8 t/ 3fF; ePlt/ dfq} v]Ng lgb]{zg lbg;Sg]5g tfls olb nl8g eg] klg pgn] cfˆgf] lktfnfO{ bf]if nufpg ;lS5g / < olb xfdLn] cfˆgf] :jtGq OR5fnfO{ ktglt/ nufof}+ eg] s] xfdL To;sf] lhDd]jf/L ;[li6stf{nfO{ 7x/fpg ;S5f} t <

1.37

p;nfO{ eOkl/ cfpg] ;a} b'Mvx?nfO{ TofUgsf] nflu jf /f]Sgsf] nflu jf To:tf s'/fdf hfgaf6 c?nfO{ lgoGq0f ug{sf] nflu ;[li6stf{n] p;sf] :jtGq OR5fnfO{ k"0f{?kn] lgoGq0fdf lng'kg]{ x'G5 . o;f] ugf{n] xfdLnfO{ v]nf}gf /f]a6{eGbf a];L s]xL agfpFb}g . s] pxfFn] xfdLnfO{ oxL agfpg rfxfg' x'G5 < o;nfO{ k|flKt ug{sf] nflu s] xfdL cfˆgf] :jtGq OR5fnfO{ TofUg] OR5f u5f}{ < ts{n] eGb5 Úxf]OgÚ . ;[li6sf ;a} ;d:ofx?nfO{ ;dfwfg ug]{ Ifdtf ePsf] ;[li6stf{;Fu o;sf] ;dfwfgsf] pkfo klg /x]sf] 5 . o;sf] ;dfwfgsf] pkfo e};s]sf] / clxn] o;n] sfd ul//x]sf] 5 eg]/ xfdL o; ljifonfO{ ;dfKt ug{ ;S5f} . pxfFsf] lg/Gt/ e}/x]sf] ;[li6df, pxfFn] Pp6f ;fgf] uNtLnfO{ klg TolQs} 5f]8]/ g;RofOsg /xg lbg' x'G5 eg]/ ;f]Rg', oltsf w]/} hl6n s'/fx? / k"0f{ s'/fx?nfO{ cWoog ul/;s]kl5 ts{k"0f{ b]lvb}g . o; zf/Ll/s s'?ksf s'/fx? z/L/sf] cGTo;Fu} ;dfKt x'g] / o;sf] ef}lts cl:tTjkl5 cl:tTjdf gx'g] s'/fåf/f o;nfO{ cGTo ug'{ plrt xf]nf .

1.38

dfG5]n] c;n eg]/ cfˆgf] hLjgaf6 h] b]vfpF5 Tof] ;[li6stf{sf] c;nkgf xf] eg]/ a'‰g' kb{5, t/ dfG5]n] csf]{ s'/fx? klg b]vfpF5 h;n] p;sf] cfˆgf] o; :jfy{ljlxgsf] t:jL/;Fu ljkl/t ePsf] kfpF5 . k/d]Zj/sf] ;[li6n] Ps o:tf] cj:ydf cfO{k'Ubf Ps lsl;dsf] afgLnfO{ ljsf; ul/;s]sf x'G5g ls To; afgLn] k/d]Zj/sf] :jefjnfO{ k|s6 ub{}g . dfG5]n] o:tf] afgL slxn] / sxfFaf6 z'?jft u¥of] < s] tL :jlgld{t lyP ls o;nfO{ kl5 cflh{t ul/of] < s] k/d]Zj/n] To;nfO{ lbg' eof] jf cGo s'g} ;|f]taf6 Tof] cfof] < cfh ;+;f/df b'O{j6f d'Vo zlQmx? Ps–csf{sf] lj/f]wdf sfo{/t e}/x]sf 5g eGg] s'/fdf s'g} z+sf 5}g . tL o; ;+;f/df dfq} sfo{/t e}/x]sf 5}gg\ ls ljz]iful/ dfG5]df sfo{/t 5g . oL b'O{ ljkl/t tTjx? c;n / v/fa x'g . olb ;[li6stf{ c;n x'g'x'G5 eg]/ eGb5f} eg], ;[li6df kfO{g] b'i6tf pxfFn] ubf{ xf]Og eg]/ lgisif{ lgsfNg' kb{5 . lsgls ;[li6stf{n] k|]d;fy lgdf{0f ug'{ePsf] s'/fnfO{ gi6 ug{ vf]lh/x]sf] x'G5 .

1.39

h'g;'s} sf/0fn] xf]; jf dfG5]sf] cj:yfn] k/d]Zj/sf] k|f/lDes ;[li6b]lv g} oL b'O{j6f s'/f o; ;+;f/df /x]sf lyP eGg] s'/f xfd|f] cfˆg} ts{n] ujfxL lbG5 . o; ktgsf/L zlQm s;/L cl:tTjdf cfof] eg]/ xfdL clxn] g} a'lemxfNg ;Sb}gf}, t/ xfd|f] cfˆgf] ljgf;sf/L :jefjn] o;nfO{ cl:tTjdf ePsf] s'/f k|dfl0ft ub{5 . o;sf] :jefljs k|df0f eg]sf] xfdL cfkm}n] cfkm}nfO{ OGsf/ ug{ ;Sb}gf} jf g;Sg' g} xf] .

1.40

Pslt/ xfd|f] ljj]sn] h'g s'/f g}lts ?kdf /fd|f 5g / gi6 ug]{ s'/feGbf lgdf+{0fsf/L s'/f ug{nfO{ dg k/fpFb5 / rfxfG5 eg], csf]{lt/ o;}sf ljkl/t s'/fx?df /dfx6 ug]{ :jefjnfO{ klg xfdLdf ePsf] kfpF5f} . Pp6fn] cfˆg} :jfyL{ ljrf/df Nofpg] gi6nfO{ jf:tf g} gu/L sfd ug]{ OR5f ub{5 . jfWosf/L ef]ssf] :jefjn] :jfy{åf/f dfq} c:yfO{?kn] ;Gt'li6 lbg;S5 . o:tf] :jefjn] c;n b]lvg] s'/fdf dfq} ;Gt'li6 kfpb}g / c;n b]lvg] c;n :jfb ePsf], c;n efjgfdf dfq} ;Gt'li6 geO{, o:tf :jefjn] c?nfO{ lgoGq0fdf /fVg] zlQmsf] ef]sf ePsf x'g] ub{5g / o:tf] :jefjn] cem} g} :jfy{nfO{ dfq} k'/f ugf{n] s:tf] kl/0ffd lg:sG5g eGg] s'/fdf jf:tf ub}{gg\ . s;/L l;4ul/ agfOPsf] dfG5], hf] o;/L k"0f{?kn] ktg e};s]kl5 klg Pp6} bfu gnfu]sf] l;4 ;[li6stf{nfO{ v'zL kfg]{ cfzf ub{5 < olb xfdL hf] bfu nfu]sf ;[li6, xfd|f] l;4 k/d]Zj/;Fu Pstfdf cfof} eg] s] pxfFsf] j:qnfO{ kmf]x/ kfg{ k'Ub}gf} / <

1.41

cflTds /f]u

olb d}n] b'O{j6f lzzLx?df Pp6fdf Psbd} z'4 kfgL / csf]{df Psbd} ljiffQm ls6f0f' /fv]sf] 5' eg], z'4 kfgL ePsf] lzzLdf ljiffQm lzzLsf] kfgL s]xL dfqfdf ldnfpgfn] To;nfO{ klg ljiffQm agfpg ;lsG5 < olb xfd|f] jt{dfg cj:yfdf g} k/d]Zj/n] xfdLnfO{ pxfFdf ldnfpg vf]Hg' eof] eg] s] pxfFn] cfkm}nfO{ b'lift kfg'{ x'Gg / < s] xfdL klg Tof] ljiffQm kfgL ePsf] lzzL h:t} ePsf 5}gf} / < lsgls xfdL;Fu kfksf ls6f0f' /x]sf 5g . xfd|f] jt{dfg cj:yf;Fu ;[li6stf{;Fu k'g{ldngdf cfpg' eg]sf] c;Dej 5 . k"0f{?kdf b'lift gePsf] l;4tfnfO{ s;/L k|fKt ug{ ;S5 xf]nf < of] c;Dej 5 . ;a} b'lift s'/fx?nfO{ jf cz'4 s'/fx?nfO{ c;+s|ldt ;|f]tåf/f x6fpg'kb{5 . olb c;+s|ldt s'/f ;+s|ldt s'/f;Fu l;w} ;Dks{df cfpg] xf] eg], Tof] s'/f klg ;+s|ldt x'g]5 . of] klg ts{;+Ët 5}g . 8/nfUbf] kfksf] ls6f0f'sf] vf]knfO{ ;[li6 ug]{ xf] eg], xfdLn] o:tf] Ps JolQmnfO{ vf]Hg' kb{5 h;sf] /f]u;Fu n8\g] Ifdtf ljz]if k|sf/sf] /x]sf] 5 / s'g} klg sdhf]/Lx?n] o;nfO{ 6'qmfpg ;Sg] 5}g .

1.42

olb k/d]Zj/ cfTdf x'g'x'G5 / pxfF;Fu z/L/ / /ut 5}g eg], o; sfdsf] nflu pxfF pko'Qm x'g;Sg' ePg, Ps dWo:y ;|f]tnfO{ k|of]u ul/g' kb{5 . gi6sf/L kfksf] ls6f0f'af6 c;/ gx'g] ;|f]tsf] vfFrf] kb{5 . Ps o:tf] alnof] ;|f]t h;n] cfkm}df /f]sfj6 ug{ ;S5 eg] /f]usf ls6f0f'nfO{ vf]h]/ ;a}nfO{ gi6 ug{ ;Sg] alnof] z/L/nfO{ klg ljsf; ug{ ;Sb5 . clg o:tf] alnof] kfksf] ls6f0f' k:g g;Sg] z/L/nfO{ k|fKt ug{, of] alnof] dWo:t ;|f]tn] htfefjL 5l/P/ /x]sf] ls6f0f'nfO{ k/f:t ub}{ o:tf] /f]usf ls6f0f' gk:g] z/L/sf] ;[hgf ug'{ kb{5, h;nfO{ :jOR5fn] lng rfxfg]n] lng ;sf]; eg]/ k|of]u klg ug{ ;lsof]; . o:tf k|f]l6gx?df /ut axg] x'G5 / o; /utaf6 o:tf] vf]ksf] lgdf{0f ug{ ;lsg]5 h;nfO{ :jOR5fn] :jLsf/ ug]{x?n] /f]u;Fu n8\g ;Sg] Ifdtf ljsf; ug{ ;Sg] 5g . clg o; /utn] kfksf] ls6f0f'nfO{ ;Dks{df cfpg] lalQSs} gi6 ug]{5 . cudjQmf oz}ofn] o]z"sf] af/]df n]Vg' x'Fbf, lgDglnlvt s'/fx?nfO{ O{;fO afOandf n]Vg' ePsf] 5 M

1.43

oz}of %#M%

xfd|f kfkx?sf] sf/0f pxfFnfO{ s'l6of] / xfd|f cwd{x?sf sf/0f 3fon kfl/of], xfd|f tf8\gfsf] zflGt pxfFdf lyof] lsgls pxfFn] vfg' ePsf] sf]/f{åf/f xfdL lgsf] ePsf 5f} .

/ut x'gsf] nflu tkfO{sf] z/L/ x'g'kb{5  dfgj x'g'kb{5 . s'g} klg b'lift s'/f gePsf] /ut k|fKt ug{sf] nflu, kfkdfly ljho ePsf] kfksf] /f]usf ls6f0f'nfO{ /f]Sg ;Sg] dfgjsf] cfjZostf kb{5 . o:tf] JolQmnfO{ sxfF e]§fOG5 < a|Xdf08df s]jn b'O{j6f c;n / v/fasf zlQm dfq} cjl:yt 5g / log} b'O{j6f zlQmaf6 To; dWo:tstf{ cfpg' kg]{ klg :ki6 5, / pxfFsf] ldzg -Wo]o_ eg]sf] b'i6nfO{ gi6 u/]/ c;nnfO{ hf]ufO{ /fVg' ePsf] x'gfn] pxfFnfO{ s]jn c;n ug]{ zlQmaf6 dfq} lnOg] s'/f klg :ki6 5 . clg Tof] rflxF k/d]Zj/ jf ;[li6stf{sf] zlQm xf] . c? s'g} ts{k"0f{ 5}g .

1.44

 To;f] xf] eg] ;[li6stf{n] cfkm}af6 / cfˆg} z/L/af6 hGdlng' kg]{ eof] / pxfFn] o; gofF 5'§} k|sf/sf] hLjgnfO{ dflg;sf] z/L/df k|s6 u/fpFb} p;sf] /f]u;Fu n8\g] k|0ffnL kfk/lxt eP/ kfksf ls6f0f'nfO{ cfs|d0f ug{ ;S5 ls ;Sb}g eg]/ hfFRg' k¥of] / o;/L cfs|d0f ug]{ ls6f0f'nfO{ lht]/ /utdf vf]k tof/ kfg'{ k¥of] tfls hf] sf]xLn] :jOR5fn] o;nfO{ lnP eg] rËfO{ tyf z'4 x'g] dha't zlQmnfO{ k|fKt ug{ ;Sg] 5g . o; dWo:tstf{ z/L/ cg';f/ k"0f{ dfG5] :jtGq OR5f;Fusf] / cfzfdf k"0f{ k/d]Zj/ x'g' kb{Yof] . o;sf] cy{ ktgsf/L hf]lvdnfO{ ;xg' x'g] lyof] .

olb o; dWo:tstf{n] ljgf;sf/L zlQm -kfksf] zlQm_ lt/ 9Nsg] xf] eg], kfksf] ls6f0f'dfly ljho x'g'sf] ;§fdf pgsf] cfˆg} /f]u;Fu n8\g;Sg] k|0ffnLn] ;Demf}tf u/]/ kfksf] ls6f0f'åf/f gi6 x'g] lyof] . kfksf] ls6f0f'dfly c;kmntf x'g' eg]sf] dWo:tstf{sf] d[To' xf] / vf]kljgf kfksf] ls6f0f'n] c;/ kf/]sfx? ;fy} ;a} dfgjsf] klg d[To' x'g' xf] . /f]dL #M@# ;a}n] kfk u/]sf 5g / k/d]Zj/sf] dlxdfaf6 r's]sf 5g . of] dWo:tstf{ sf] x'g < s] pxfF cl:tTjdf /xg' x'G5 < olb pxfFsf] cl:tTj lyof] eg] jf 5 eg] pxfF slxn] / sxfF /xg' x'G5 < s] pxfFn] cfˆgf] ldzg -Wo]o_ nfO{ k"/f ug'{eof] < s] cfh kfksf ls6f0f'nfO{ cfs|d0f x'b}5g jf s'g} klg x:tIf]kljgf lg/Gt/?kdf /lx cfPsf 5g <

1.45

of] clt g} dxTjk"0f{ k|ZgnfO{ pQ/lbgsf] nflu xfdLnfO{ tfls{s k|df0fsf] cfjZostf kb{5 . clxn];Dd xfdLn] 5nkmn u/]sf] tfls{s s'/fnfO{ a'‰g] P]ltxfl;s kfqsf] klxn] xfdLn] vf]hL ug'{kb{5, h;n] rflxF xfdLn] xfd|f] ;fdfGo ts{nfO{ k|of]u u/]/ kQf] nufPsf] ;a} If]qx?nfO{ To; JolQmn] a'‰g ;s]sf] xf];\ .

To;f] xf] eg] xfdLn] To:tf] JolQmsf] vf]hL ul//x]sf 5f} h;sf] ;[li6stf{;Fu k|ToIf ;DaGw 5 / ktg x'g] o; ;d:ofnfO{ p;n] /fd|f];Fu a'em]sf] ePtfklg o; b'[i6tfsf] cfkm} eg] lzsf/ ePsf] 5}g . pmrflxF dfgj x'g'kb{5 / p;sf] ldzg eg]sf] o; ls6f0f';Fu k|To]If ;fdgf u/]/ To;dfly ljho x'g'kb{5 eGg] p;n] hfg]sf] x'g'kb{5 . o; ljhoaf6 cflTds vf]knfO{ p;sf] /utåf/f tof/ u/L dfG5]df ePsf] kfksf] ls6f0f'nfO{ gi6 ub{5, h;sf] nflu cfkm}af6 To;nfO{ x6fpg] s'/fnfO{ pTkfbg ub{5 .
To;}n], pxfFn] ;+qmldt, n'l6Psf] d[ts hLjgb]lv 5'6sf/f u/fP/ ;[li6stf{;Fu ldnfkdf NofOPsf] x'g ;S5 . pxfFn] km]l/ Psrf]6L ;Dk"0f{ ?kn] agfpg'eof] / ljhosf] bf]if/lxt /utsf] zlQmåf/f z'4 agfpg'eof] .

1.46

cem} ;f]Rg'xf];\ -ljrf/ ug'{xf];\_
olb xfd|f] ts{;+ut lgisif{;Fu s'g} cfjZosLo lrq0f d]n vfG5 eg] xfdLn] ;+;f/sf] ;a} wd{x?nfO{ OGsf/ ug'{eGbf klxn] k|To]s x]/fO{df w]/} tfls{s 9+un] hfFr ug'{ x'GYof] . k9]/ yfs]kl5 dfq xfdLn] ;+;f/sf] Pp6} dfq wd{ 5 eGg] s'/f yfxf kfpg] 5f}+ ls h'g rflx xfd|f] pko'Qm cfzf x'g ;Sof] . of] ;a}eGbf nfdf]  xf]Og t/ #÷ eGbf dflysf] :yfgdf 5 .

1.47

k|df0fsf] k/LIf0f
d eG5' O;fOv wd{ xf] . kfksf] hLjf0f'n] ;+qmldt ePsfx?sf nflu pkrf/sf] vflt/ ltlgx?sf] nflu O;fOv algPsf] xf] . o;n] of] yfxf u/fpF5 ls o]z" v|Li6 -k|lt1f ul/Psf] / k/d]Zj/af6 cleif]s ePs]_ dWo:ystf{ x'gsf] nflu k/d]Zj/af6 hGd eof] . pxfF clxn] klg kfk/lxt x'g'x'G5 / Tof] kfksf] ls6f0f' pxfF cfkm}n] lng] :jtGq OR5f pxfFdf 5, h;df ljho 5 / pxfFsf] /utåf/ z'l4s/0f / hLjg /Iffsf] zlQm ;a}sf] nflu pknAw u/fpg'x'G5 .

1.48

s] xfdL O;fO o]z"sf] cl:tTj lyof] eGg] s'/f k|dfl0ft ug{ ;S5f}+ < cfhsf] ldlt n]v] h:t} pxfFsf] cl:tTj k|dfl0ft ug{ klg w]/} ;lhnf] 5 . pxfFsf] hLjgsf] k/LIf0faf6 o]z" k/d]Zj/sf] k'q x'g'x'G5 elg k|dfl0ft x'G5 . Oltxf;sf] klxnf] jif{df /flvPsf] clen]v leq k|To]s k':tf bf]xf]¥ofP/ o]z" v|Li6sf] cl:tTjsf] k|dfl0ft n]vx? lyP . pxfF cfkm}n] klg ;Eo ;+;f/sf] Joj;fosf] :yfg, ljBfno, cbfnt / k|To]s ;dfrf/ kqdf of] s'/f 3f]if0ff ug'{ePsf] lyiof] . ha xfdL s'g} klg sfo{ ubf{ ldlt n]V5f}+, xfdL s'g 7fpFdf s] ljifosf] sfo{ xf], sfo{ ePsf] lbg, dlxgf / jif{sf] clen]v /fV5f}+ . pbfx/0fsf] nflu d}n] ;g\ !(^@ h'nfO ^ df klxnf] sf/ lsg]F . pGgfO; ;o / jf;f7L eg]sf] s] xf] cyf{t slxn]af6 eGg] k|Zg p7\5 . o;sf] pQ/ xf] pGgfO; ;o / af;f7L eGgfn] o]z" v|Li6sf] hGd]sf] ldltb]lvaf6 eGg] a'lemG5 / h;nfO{ g;f/tsf] o]z" elg yfxf x'G5 .

1.49

olb xfdL sf]xL hGd]sf] lbgb]lvsf] jif{x?sf] ;+Vof ulg/x]sf 5f}+ eg] s;/L p;sf] cl:tTj slxNo} x'g ;Sb}g elg bfjL ug{ ;S5f}+ < ts{o'Qm k|df0fn] egg]5 ls o;sf] cl:tTj 5 . olb sf]xLl;t o;sf] lj/f]wsf] k|df0f 5 eg] d}n] To;nfO{ slxNo} b]v]sf] 5}g . pxfFsf] cl:tTj / pxfFsf !@ r]nfx?sf] ujfxL -;fIfL_ cfb/0fLo ox'bLx?sf] Oltxf; /f]dL ;d|f6 hf];]km; eGg] JolQmn] /flvPsf] 5 .

1.50

hf];]km;n] n]lvPsf clen]v cfh;Dd klg 5 . h'g :jLsfo{hgs 5 / of] clen]v kSsf 5 elg bfjL ul/Psf] 5 . hf];]km;n] of] s'/f 3f]if0ff ug'{ePsf] 5 ls pxfF cfkm} klg O;fO xf]Og . pxfFn] o]z";Fu glhs /x]sfx?sf] ljifodf / ;Totfsf] ljifo af]N5 / o]z"sf egfO{x? eGg'x'G5 . ox'bL k|frLg ;dosf] pxfFsf] @) cf}+ k':tsdf km\Nofl08; hf];]km; elTsPsf] dlGb/sf] af/]df 3f]if0ff u/]sf 5g\, lsgeg] dflg;x?n] ofs'j dfly s] u/]sf] 5, hf] o]z"sf] efO lyof], pgLk|lt hf];]km;n] Psbd} wfld{s dflg;nfO{ h:t} cfb/ ul/Psf] 5 . d km]l/ eG5' hf];]km; g t pxfF O;fO{ x'g'x'GYof], g t pxfFn] jfOjndf n]lvPsf s'g} s'/fsf] clen]v /fVg]x?dWo] Ps x'g'x'GYof] g t  pxfFn] O;fOTj / o;sf] lzIffsf] clen]vnfO{ g} n]Vg'eof] .

1.51

clxn] xfdLn] o;nfO{ ;dfj]z u/]sf 5f}+, / jfOjnsf] af/]df s'/f u/f}+ . xfdLn] w]/} dflg;x? afOjndf kfpF5f}+, h;n] o]z'sf af/]df n]v] . cbfntsf] lgoddf klg lnlvt ;fIfL x'G5 h;nfO{ k|df0f nfUg] zjfw kIf cyjf lsl/of xfn]sf] ujfxL elgG5 . o;} s'/fsf] cfwf/df ;fFrf] xf] ls xf]Og k|dfl0ft ug{ lg/Gt/tf lbG5 . ljz]if u/L o;n] c?sf] ujfxLsf] ;j'tåf/ b[9 u5{ . jfOjnsf] k|To]s dfux? -h;nfO{ gofF lgodsf] ujfxLsf e]6L elgG5_ o]z" v|Li6sf] ujfxL / pxfFsf] cl:tTjsf] af/]df atfpF5 . of] s'g} cfDbfgLsf] nflu rnfOPsf] snd xf]Og, h;n] s'g} k|df0fsf] lj?4df ;xof]u u5{ . s'g} s'/fx?df yk]/ o; s'/fnfO{ lg/Gt/tf xfdLn] lbg ;Sof}+ ls Oltxf;sf] ?k/]vfaf6 g/f;tsf] o]z" eg]/ k|dfl0ft x'G5 . t/ ;a} ylkPsf] a'Fbfx? cTolws x'GYof] . xfdfLn] tfls{s 9+un] of] s'/f k|dfl0ft ul/;s]sf 5f}+ ls o]z"sf] cl:tTj ;fFRr} g} lyof] .

1.52

s] o]z" k/d]Zj/sf] k'q x'g'x'GYof] < cfpg'xf];\ xfdL Psl5g of] k|Zglt/ Wofg lbpF . ;[li6stf{ k/d]Zj/n] g} xfdLnfO{ of] s'/f hfGg'sf] nflu af6f] b]vfOlbg' x'g]5 . olb o]z" g} xfd|f] kfk w'gsf] nflu k7fOPsf] JolQm x'g' x'Fbf]/x]5 eg] t/ s;/L < h;n] k/d]Zj/ cl:tTjdf x'g'x'G5 eGg] s'/fnfO{ ljZjf; u/L kfk g} ;a} ;d:ofsf] h8 xf] eGg] s'/fsf] af]w x'g' g} of] s'/fsf] hfgsf/L k|fKt ug]{ pQd pd]bjf/ xf] . t/ km]l/ Psk6s ;f]rf}+, of] s;/L x'g ;S5 t < dflg;x?sf] Pp6f ;fgf] ;d"x dfq k/d]Zj/ x'g'x'G5 eGg] cfkm\gf] ts{sf] lgisif{df cfOk'u]sf 5g\ t/ w]/}h;f]n] kfksf] ls6f0f';Fu l8n ug]{ ;DaGwdf cfkm"x? c;dy{ x'Fb} uPsf] s'/fk|lt Tolt w]/} xf]l;of/ 5}gg\ . dflg; :jefj}n] cfkm\gf] 3d08 / Joy{tfdf o; s'/fnfO{ ljZjf; u5{g\ ls cfh dfgjLo 1fg / a'l4 b'/f dfq s'g} klg ;d:ofsf] xn ug{ ;lsG5 . of] s'/f ;/f;/ unt xf] . dflg;sf] a'l4n] p cfkm}nfO{ Pskl5 csf]{ ulNt b]vfO/x]sf] 5 . z}tfgsf] jxsfpdf k/]/ z'?df cflTds hLjgaf6 cnu x'g' g} dflg;sf] ulNt lyof] / cfkm}n] o;af6 aRg] s'g} klg pkfo /Rbf emg ;d:ofaf6 ;+qmldt x'g' xf] .

1.53

dflg;nfO{ ;f/f lg/f;jfbL cj:yfaf6 cnu x'g Psdfq pko'Qm af6f] k/d]Zj/sf] lglDt p;nfO{ Tof] s'/fsf] k|sfz lbg' xf] . o;f] u/]dfq kfksf] aGwgaf6 hf]lug ;xfotfsf] lglDt k/d]Zj/lt/ kms{g] sf/0f aG5 . Pp6f ljz]if JolQmn] ;[li6stf{ k/d]Zj/df ljZjf; u/] . p;n] of] ;[li6stf{nfO{ k|]d / jf:tf ug]{ k/d]Zj/ x'gsf] lglDt ljZjf; u¥of] . p;n] of] ljZjf; u¥of] ls of] k/d]Zj/;Fu s'/fsfgL ug{ klg ;lsG5 . ca s] pm kfun lyof] < s] of] ;Dej lyof] < lsg gx'g], olb xfdLn] o;sf] hjfkm lbPsf 5f}+ eg] olb To;f] xf] eg] lsg c?af6 klg gx'g] . xfdL;Fu o:tf s'/fsf] syf / egfO{x? klg 5g\ h;n] clxn]sf] k':tfsf] af/]df s'/f ub{5 t/ s] ltgLx? ;a} Joy{ lyP t <

1.54

Pshgf JolQm h;sf] af/]df clxn] xfdL rrf{ uO/x]sf 5f}+ . Tof] JolQm ca|fxd / pgsf] kl/jf/ eg]/ xfdL lrG5f}+ . p / p;sf] kl/jf/n] JolQm ;[li6stf{;Fusf] ;DaGwnfO{ ;lhn} ltt/ljt/ kfg{ klg ;S5f}+ . olb lglZrt P]ltxfl;s ;To lyPg eg] .

;+;f/sf # 7"nf wd{ O:nfd, ox'bL / v|Li6Logn] Ps csf{nfO{ 6Ss/ lnFb} lj/f]w u5{g\ t/ ca|fxdsf] ljifodf eg] ;xdt 5g\ . x/]sn] of] s'/f dflglnG5g\ ls ca|fxd g} oL wd{sf k|0f]tf lyP h'g P]ltxfl;s ;Totf klg xf] . To;kl5 pgn] c? wd{sf] klg hu a;fn] eGg] s'/fdf ;xdt hgfpF5g\ . ca|fxd O:nfdsf lktf lyP eGg] s'/fdf ljZjf; u5{g\ eg] O:nfd / ox'bL lktf ca|fxd lyP eGg] s'/fdf v|Li6Logx? ;xdt 5g\ . cflb .

1.55

ca|fxdaf6 g oL b'O{ wd{ cfP / s]xL ;dokl5 t];|f] rflxF . oL klxnf] / bf];|f] 7"nf] wd{ dWo] s'g rflxn] k/d]Zj/sf] ;[li6n] cfkm\g} lj?4 ljb|f]x ug{ z'? u¥of] t < x/]sn] 7"nf] ;+Vof cg'ofoL klg v8f u/]sf 5g\ . t/ oL # dWo] ! dfq k/d]Zj/sf] hg x'gsf] lglDt r'lgPsf 5g\ . k|frLg dflg;x?df kfk ;+qmd0fåf/f bf]wf/df NofOPsf s'/fx? k/d]Zj/n] k|sfzdf Nofpg' x'G5 . pxfFn] s]xL ;dokl5 ;+/If0f u/]/ /flvPsf] s'/fnfO{ c? ljz]if hfltnfO{ k|s6 ug{ 5fGg' x'G5, t/ xfdL cfkm} cufl8 ghfpF .

1.56

t]/f] ;Gtfgåf/f hflt v8f x'g s]xL ;do nfUg]5 . ca|fxdsf dflg;x? k':tfb]lv k':tf;Dd a9\b} uP . ca|fxdsf] O:dfOn gfd u/]sf] Pp6f 5f]/f] lyof] hf] p;sf] sdf/Laf6 hlGdPsf] lyof] . O:dfOn p;sf] cfdf;Fu 5f]l8Psf] lyof] h;sf ;Gtfgåf/f c/aL hfltx? v8f eP . O;fOsf rflxF ca|fxssf >LdtL ;f/faf6 hlGdPsf ;Gtfg lyP hf] ca|fxdnfO{ k|lt1f ul/Psf k'q lyP . h;af6 O;|fon hflt v8f x'g' lyof] . O;|fxs h;sf] gfdsf] cy{ pgL xfF:5g\ sf b'O{ 5f]/f lyP . oL dWo] sfG5f 5f]/f ofs'j kl5 uP/ O;|fPn elg lrlgP h;sf] cy{ /fhs'df/ xf]  . h]7f] rflxF P;fa hf] k|Voft lzsf/L lyP .

1.57

ax'ljjfxnfO{ lgif]w ul/g' cl3 ofs'jsf b'O{ >LdtL lyP . n]xf / /]r]n hf] lbbL alxgL lyP . n]xfaf6 5 efO{ 5f]/f hlGdP ?j]g, l;df]g, n]jL, ox'bf, O:;fvf/ / ha'n'g . /fx]nn] @ hgf hGdOg\ of];]km / ljGofldg . ofs'jsf] b'O{ hgf >LdtLsf] gf]sgL{x?sf] tkm{af6 klg 5f]/fx? lyP . /f]xnsf] gf]sgL{ ljNxfaf6 bfg / gfKtfnL hGdfP nf]cfsf] gf]sgL{ lhNkfaf6 ufb / cfz]/ u/L hDdf !@ 5f]/fx? eP . logLx? km}lnP/ afx| s'nsf] ?k lnP O;|fPn hflt elgG5 cyf{t\ lxa|'x?sf] hflt jf ox'bL hflt klg elg lrlgP .

1.58

ox'bL Oltxf; oL clen]v n]lvP ls 7"nf] clgsfn nfu]sf] ;dofjlwdf ofs'jsf ;a} ;Q/L -&)_ j+zx?n] ld>df cfkm]g} 3/ agfP, hxfF of];]km -ca|fxdsf] k'qaf6 hGdfPsf] /fx]nsf] 5f]/f_ kmf/f]sf] clwsf/d'gL /x]/ cfkm\gf] zlQmn] b]z rnfO/x]sf lyP . ltgLx? l:y/ /x]/ ;+Vofdf a9\b} /x] . ha;Dd ;[li6stf{n] of]hgf agfpg'ePsf] lyof] ta;Dd ltgLx?sf] hfltdf a[l4 eof] . ltgLx? ;+Vof a[l4 / zlQmsf] sf/0fn] ld>Lx?n] lxa|'x? hfltnfO{ ;tfP . cfkm\gf r'lgPsf hfltsf] b'Mvsf] vflt/ xf]l;of/L k/d]Zj/n] cu'jfkgb]lv 6f9f /x]sf O;|fPnL, lxa|' hfltx?sf lglDt cu'jfkgsf] nflu df]zf k7fpg'eof] h;sf] hGd n]lj :s"ndf ePsf] lyof] .

1.59

kfksf] hLjf0f'sf] JofVof
cGTodf ;[li6stf{n] pxfFdf dfq ;a} dflg;nfO{ p7fpg'ePsf] lyof] t/ c?x? h:t} h;n] ljZjf; u/]gg\, ltgLx?nfO{ s'g} ljkQLaf6 p4f/sf] vfFrf] lyof], kfksf] ljklQ ePtfklg . k/d]Zj/n] df]zf åf/f tL dflg;x?nfO{ !) j6f ;fwf/0f tfls{s cf1fx? kfngf ug{ lbg'eof] . pgLx? k|To]s l56} k|i6 eof] ls Tof] ;fwf/0f lgodx? /fVg ltgLx? ;Ifd ePgg\ . ltgLx?nO{ yfxf lyof] ls olb ltgLx? kfkdf d/] eg] o;sf] cy{ cGtt b08 cyjf cgGt;Dd k/d]Zj/af6 cnu x'g ;SYof] . o;} s'/fdf kSsf tl/sfn] k/d]Zj/;Fu ltgLx? lyP . hxfF ltgLx?nfO{ rfxg'x'GYof] . h;n] ltgLx?sf] cfzf/lxt cj:yfnfO{ dx;'; u5{ / cfkm\gf] c;Ifdtfdf p4f/sf] nflu k/d]Zj/nfO{ ;dfwfgsf] lgldQ k'sf/ ltgLx?nfO{ p7fpg pxfFn] ;a} yfs ug'{eof] . ca dflg;x? cfkm\gf kfkk|ltsf] sdhf]/Lx?df xf]l;of/ lyP .

1.60

xfdL o; sdhf]/L k|lt ;r]t klg x'gkb{5 . c:yfO{ ;dfwfgåf/f k/d]Zj/n] k|ltlqmof lbg' eof], h;n] kfksf] ls6f0f'sf] ;d:ofnfO{ ;dfwfg ug{ cfjZos l;4fGtnfO{ l;sfpFYof] / o;n] pxfFsf] clGtd pQ/nfO{ b]vfpFbYof] . k/d]Zj/n] jlnbfgsf] k|rng z'?jft ug'{eof] . lgbf]{if y'dfsf] /ut axfP/ dflg;x?n] a;]{gL c:yfO{ 5'6sf/f -Gofoaf6_ kfpg ;Sby,] t/ bL3{sflng xf]Og . o;/L r'lgPsf] y'dfsf] lgbf]{if /ut aufP/ kfknfO{ 9fSg] t/ x6fpg g;Sg] c:yfO{ ;dfwfgnfO{ kfpg ;Sby] . o;/L hgfj/sf] jlnbfgåf/f c:yfO{ ?kn] kfksf] ;d:ofaf6 -ls6f0f'af6_ 5'6sf/f t kfpg ;lsof] t/ clGtd / k"0f{ rËfO{ t kfpg ;lsPg . ha o:tf] k|rng e}/x]sf] lyof] eg] k/d]Zj/ cfkm}n] o; kfksf] ls6f0f';Fu Ps}k6s ;w}sf] nflu ljho xfFl;n ug{ l;4 alnbfgnfO{ tof/ kfb{} x'g'x'GYof] / h;n] o; vf]knfO{ :jLsf/ ub{y], p;sf] cfzf / z/L/sf] ;Dk"0f{ ls6f0f'x?nfO{ ;w}sf] nflu Ps}k6sdf k"0f{ ?kn] 5'6sf/f kfpg ;Sby] . o; vf]knfO{ k/d]Zj/sf] cfˆg} tTjaf6 ag]sf dWo:tstf{sf] kfk b]vfOlbg] /utaf6 tof/ ul/of] . ul/g' kb{Yof] . kfk;Fu k|s6 ePtfklg kfkåf/f b'lift gePsf] gqtf pm klg k/LIffdf k/]/ kfk ug{ k'Ug] lyof] .

1.61

pkrf/

k/d]Zj/n] Ps k'qnfO{ hGdfpg'x'g] lyof], / cfˆgf] k'qnfO{ dfG5]sf] /ut / z/L/ / xf8x?sf] klx/g nufOlbg' x'g] lyof] . pxfFn] p;nfO{ Ps ;fdfGo dfG5]sf] kl/jf/df hGd]sf] aRrf h:t} u/L lgdf{0f ug'{ x'g] lyof] tfls p;df dfG5]sf h:t} efjgfTds / af}l4s ;Lldttf ePsf] xf]; / p;n] dfG5] / dfG5]n] p;nfO{ k|ltljlDat ug{ ;s]sf] xf]; . dfG5]df x'g] sdhf]/Lx? / tfstx?åf/f ;HhfOPsf] x'g] lyof] . pmrflxF ;[li6sf] ;a}eGbf klxnf] dfG5] x'g] lyof] .

1.62

o; ?kdf p;n] 8/nfUbf] kfksf] ls6f0f'nfO{ ;f]em} ;fdgf ug{ ;Sg] lyof] . pxfFn] cfkm}nfO{ o;;Fu ;+e|d0f x'g / cfs|d0f x'g;Sg] cg'dlt lbg'eof] . o; ls6f0f'n] pxfFnfO{ lht]/ gi6 ug{ vf]Hg] lyof] . olb pxfF To;sf] lzsf/ ePdf, dfG5]nfO{ z'4tftkm{ kmsf{pg] ;a} cfzfx? ;bfsf] nflu x/fpg] lyP . t/ ls6f0f' eGbf alnof] eg]/ cfkm}nfO{ ;fljt ug{ ;Sg] xf] eg], pxfFsf] /ut pkrf/sf] d'Vo ;fwg x'g] lyof] / o;sf] l;4 ug]{ zlQmnfO{ :jLsf/ ug]{ ;a}sf] lglDt Ps lgsf] kfg]{ vf]k x'g] lyof] . of] s:tf] of]hgf xf] . klxnf] ;[li6 ePsf] dfG5] kfksf] ls6f0f'af6 d/]sf] lyof] / p;Fu / påf/f o;sf ;a} sdhf]/Lx?sf ;fy ;a} eljZosf dfG5]sf k"vf{x?;Dd ;b}{ cfO/x]sf] 5 .

1.63

o:tf] of]hgfsf] ts{ k|Zg ug{ g;lsg] 5, t/ o:tf] ljZjf; g} ug{ g;lsg] of]hgf ;+;f/sf] s'g} csf]{ n]vx? jf u|Gyx?df kfpg ;lsG5 < o; ts{;Fu ldNbf] s'g} o:tf] lnlvt of]hgf st} kfO{G5 < ;+;f/sf ;a} 7"nf wd{x?df o;/L O{Zj/Lo k|]/0ffaf6 of]hgf u/]sf] s'g} s'/fnfO{ ToxFf kfpg ;lsG5 < o:tf cK7\of/f k|Zgx?sf pQ/rflxF xf], kfO{G5 . wd{rflxF O{;fOTj xf] / lnlvt u|GyrflxF æk/d]Zj/sf] jrgÆ h;nfO{ afOan eg]/ klg elgG5 .

1.64

o:tf] of]hgf ePsf] k':ts cjZo klg O{Zj/Lo k|]/0ff ePsf] x'g'kb{5, / o:tf] k':tsdf ;[li6stf{sf] dfq} sfd ePsf] x'g'kg]{ s'/f klg lglZrt / tfls{s /x]sf] 5 . olb of] k':ts ;[li6stf{sf] sfd xf] eg], o;n] cfpg] d'lQm / s;n] d'lQm Nofpg] 5 eGg] s'/fnfO{ klg cjZo b]vfPsf] x'g'kb{5 . k/d]Zj/n] pxfFsf] dWo:tstf{, pxfFn] lgo'Qm ug'{ ePsf] ;Gb]z jxfs, pxfFsf] k'qsf] af/]df 3f]if0ff ug'{x'g] lyof] . o; k|ltlglwTj ug]{nfO{ k/d]Zj/ cfkm}n] cfˆg} cfTdfaf6 agfpg' x'g] lyof], xfdLn] k/d]Zj/ ;[li6stf{ cfkm}af6 hGdg' ePsf] Ps dfq k'q eg]/ pkflwlbg ;Sb5f} . cjZo g} o; d'lQmbftfsf] cfudg, pxfFsf] hLjg / sfdsf ljifodf oL ;a} s'/fx? x'g'eGbf w]/} klxn] g} o; k':tsdf n]lvO;s]sf lyP .

1.65

olb o:tf 36gfx? cudjf0fL ul/of] / o;} cudjf0fL cg';f/ s'/fx? cfPsf lyP eg], o; k':tsnfO{ e/f];f ug{ ;lsG5 jf ;lsFb}g eg]/ s;}n] klg o; k':tssf] ljZjf; of]Uotfdf z+sf ug{ ;Sg] 5}gg\ . o]z" eGbf cl3sf dflg;x? h;n] pxfFsf] cfudgeGbf klxn] g} pxfFsf] af/]df atfPsf s'/fx?nfO{ x]g'{ clt ts{;Ët 5 lsgeg] afOann] O{;fOTjsf] af/]df klxn] g} ;'lrt u/]sf] kfpF5f} . ltgLx?sf ujfxL alnof] tyf tfls{s k|df0f x'g'kb{5 eg]/ x]l/g' kb{5 . jf:tjdf eGg] xf] eg], pxfFsf] af/]df elgPsf s'/fx? af:tjdf g} k"/f x'g cfP / c? dflg;x?n] o;sf] k|df0f u/]sf 5g .

1.66

ca|fxfd, O;xfs / ofs"asf] j+zaf6 cfPsf] ox"bL :qLåf/f k/d]Zj/sf] Psdfq hGdfOPsf] k'qsf] hGd x'g]5 eg]/ cudjf0fL ePsf] lyof] . ox"bfsf] s"n / O;|fPnsf] bf];|f] /fhf bfpmbsf] j+zdf pxfFsf] hGdsf] !))) jif{ cl3 cudjQmfx?n] pxfFsf] hGdsf] af/]df cudjf0fL af]n]sf lyP . pxfFsf] ;]jsfO{ ufnLnlt/ x'g] / #) cf]6f rfFbLsf l;Ssfx?åf/f pxfFnfO{ Toflug] s'/fsf] klg cudjf0fL e};s]sf] lyof] . s/La hGdg'eGbf kfFrb]lv ;ft;o jif{ cl3 dfq} pxfFnfO{ xft, v'§fdf sfF6L 7f]s]/ ck/fwLx?;Fu} s"|;df r9fpg] / pxfFsf] sf]vfdf klg 3f]lrg] tyf pxfFsf] z/L/ s'lxP/ gi6 x'g' cl3 g} lrxfgaf6 af}/L p7\g] h:tf s'/fsf] cudjf0fL af]lnPsf] lyof] . oL ;a} / cGo cudjf0fLx? klg k"/f x'g cfP . 8/nfUbf] kfksf] ls6f0f'af6 dflg;x?nfO{ arfpg r'lgPsf] hg pxfF dfq} xf] eGg s;}nfO{ z+sf nfU5 / jf z+sf ug{ ;lsG5 / <

1.67

kfjn tDa" agfpg]sf ;a} n]vx?, d5'jfjfnf o"xGgf, /f]dL ;/sf/sf s/ p7fpg] dQL / n"sf Ps 8fFS6/, ;a} o]z"sf ;dodf /x]sf lyP / pgLx?n] oL klxn] ul/Psf ;a} bfaLx? k"/f ePsf cfFvfn] b]Vg] ujfxLx? x'g / pgsf / pgsf r]nfx?n] u/]sf cRrdsf sfdx?sf klg ujfxL x'g .

1.68

j}1flgs l;4fGt / afOanLo ;Totflar t'ngf

k[YjL uf]nfsf/ 5 eg]/ ;+;f/sf] ;a} lj4fgx?sf] cl3 d]un]gn] k|dfl0ft ug'{ cl3 @))) jif{ cl3, oz}of gfds afOansf cudjQmfn] k/d]Zj/ k[YjLsf] uf]nfO{dfly pleg'x'G5 eg]/ eg]sf lyP . k[YjL nfDrf] cfsf/sf] 5 eg]/ ;a}n] ljZjf; ug]{ ;dodf o;/L eg]sf lyP -oz}of $)M@@_ . o;} cudjQmfn] d'lQmbftfnfO{ k/d]Zj/n] dWok"jL{ d[t ;fu/sf] glhs /x]sf] ox"lbofsf] a]tn]x]dsf] Ps ;fgf] k|Voft gePsf] zx/df hGdg] 5g eg]/ klg eg]sf lyP . o; d'lQmbftfnO{ k/d]Zj/ eg]/ k7fOg] lyof] . pxfFsf] hGd x'g] :yfgdf o"/f]ksf], Plzofsf] / clk|msfsf k|fGtx? Ps 7fpFdf e]nf x'g] :yfgdf x'g] lyof] . o;n] pxfF Ps /fi6«fk|fGt jf hfltsf] dfq} geO{, t/ k[YjLdf ePsf ;Dk"0f{ dfgjsf] lglDt x'g' x'G5 eGg] xf] .

1.69

o]z" hGdg'eGbf sl/j ^)) jif{ cl3 csf{ cudjQmfn] o]z" dfl/g] t/ cfˆg} sf/0fn] geO{ cs}{sf] sf/0fn] x'g]5 eg]/ 3f]if0ff u/] . O{=;+ #) df o]z"nfO{ dfl/of], t/ cfˆg} sf/0fn] xf]Og . cudjQmfn] eg] h:t} ;a} dflg;x?sf kfksf nflu pxfFsf] d[To' eof] . bfpmb O;|fPnsf /fhf dfq} lyPgg t/ cudjQmf klg lyP / pgL afOanLo k|Voft kfq dfq geO{ k|Voft tyf dfGotf kfPsf] P]ltxfl;s kfq klg x'g / pg} d'lQmbftfn] d[To'dfly ljho xfFl;n ug]{ / af}/L p7\g]5g eg]/ n]v] .

1.70

afOan dfq l:y/ /xG5

afOan dfq} l:y/ /xG5, afOan PSn} v8f /xG5, ljleGg k[i7e"ldaf6 cfPsf 6'qmf 6qmful/ !%)) jif{sf] ;dodf $) eGbf a9L n]vsx?åf/f lnlvt afOan, cRrd nfUbf] k':ts dfq} xf] eg]/ lbg' clt ckdfghgs x'g]5 . sf]xL ;}Go cu'jfx? lyP eg] sf]xL k"hfxf/Lx? / n]vsx?df /fhf, d5'jfjfnf, uf]7fnf tyf k|wfgdGqL klg lyP . k/d]Zj/åf/f n]lvPsf] k':ts eg]/ bfaL ug]{ Ps dfq k':ts afOan xf] . o;sf n]vx?n] n]vs ;[li6stf{ k/d]Zj/ x'g' ePsf] / pxfFn] o; ljZjsf] ;[li6 ug'{ePsf] s'/fnfO{ k|sfz kfb{5 .

1.71

n]vsx? cf1fsf/L kl08tx? lyP . Pp6} klg n]vs csf]{eGbf km/s geO{ t/ k|To]sn] Ps cfk;df ;Ël7t eO{ k"0f{, s'g}klg bfuljgf Ps?ktfdf aUg] / h;nfO{ tfls{s tl/sfn] cnf}lss eg]/ j0f{g ug{ ;lsg] ul/ k|sfzsf] wf/f aufpF5g . of] h:tf] k':ts c? s'g} 5}g / lj4fgx?n] o;nfO{ l5Rjn], cfnf]rgf u/] / OGsf/ u/]tfklg s;}n] ck|dfl0ft ug{ eg] ;s]sf 5}gg\ . lj1fgsf] lstfax? a;]{gL ;Rofpg' kg]{ tyf k'g{;+zf]wg ug'{kg]{ tyf uNtLx? b]lvg] tyf 1fgx?nfO{ yKg'kg]{ x'G5 eg], afOannfO{ slxNo} o:tf] k'g{;+zf]wg ug'{ k/]sf] 5}g . lsg < lsgeg] o;n] k/d]Zj/sf] jrg eg]/ u/]sf] 3f]if0ff ;w} g} ;To 5 eg]/ xfd|f] ts{n] elg/x]sf] 5 .

1.72

s] o]z" k/d]Zj/sf] k'q xf] <

s] o]z" pxfFn] bfaL ug'{ePsf] h:t} g} x'g'x'G5 < o]z" eGg] JolQmsf] cl:tTj /x]sf] xfdLn] k|dfl0ft u/]sf 5f}, t/ s] pxfF ;fFlRrg} k/d]Zj/sf] k'q xf] < olb pxFFf k/d]Zj/sf] k'q xf] eg] pxfFsf] af/]df af]lnPsf ;a} cudjf0fLx?nfO{ k"/f ug'{kb{5 . pbfx/0fsf] nflu /fhf bfpmbsf] j+zaf6 cfPsf] sGofaf6 pxfFsf] hGd x'gkb{Yof] . pxfF ox"lbofsf] a]yn]x]ddf hGd x'g'kg]{ lyof] . x]/f]bsf] xTofaf6 afFRgsf] nflu b'O{jif{sf] lgbf]{if pd]/df g} ld>af6 efUg'kg]{ lyof] . pxfFnfO{ k/d]Zj/sf] k'q 3f]if0ff ul/g] tyf pxfFsf] ;]jsfO{ ufnLndf x'g] / pxfFnfO{ cudjQmf eg]/ lrlgg] s'/f 3f]if0ff ul/of] . pxfFn] 6'lqmPsf] ÅbonfO{ rËfO{ ug]{, cfˆg} dflg;x?åf/f OGsf/ x'g] / cfˆg} ;fyLåf/f Toflug] eg]/ elgof] . pxfFnfO{ tL; rfFbLsf 6'qmfx?sf] nflu zq'sf] xftdf ;'lDkg] / em'6f] ujfxLåf/f cf/f]k nufpg] / pxfFrflxF ltgLx?sf] cl3 zfGt eP/ /xg] s'/f elgof] . pxfFnfO{ cf/f]k nufpFb} lvNnL ul/;s]kl5 pxfFsf] v'§f / xftx? 3f]lrg], sf/0f g} ljgf 3[0ffsf] kfq algg], y'lsg] / ;fw/0f rf]/x?;Fu} s|";df 6fFlug] s'/f klg elgof] . pxfFsf] ltvf{nfO{ d]6fpgsf] lglDt pxfFnfO{ l;sf{ lbOg] / To;kl5 pxfFn] ;+si6sf nflu k|fy{gf ug'{x'g] lyof] . l;kfxLx?n] pxfFsf] n"ufsf] nflu uf]nf xfNg], ltgLx?n] pxfFsf] s/Ë 3f]Rg] t/ klg pxfFsf] x•Lx? gefFlrg], pxfFnfO{ pxfFsf] wgL ;fyLsf] lrxfgdf /flvg] t/ tLg lbgkl5 af}/L p7]/ $) lbgkl5 :ju{df p7fO{ n}hfg] lyof] . k/d]Zj/sf] dWo:tstf{ / d'lQmbft ag]/ kfksf] ls6f0f'af6 aRgsf] nflu oL ;a} s'/fx? / c? w]/} s'/fx? pxfFn] k"/f ug'{kg]{ lyof] . o]z" eGbf w]/} clw hGd]sf cudjQmfx?n] tL s'/fx? cudjf0fL :j?k eg]sf lyP / ;a} s'/fx? k"/f eP .

1.73

s'g} Ps ;fdfGo dfG5]df oL ;a} s'/fx? k"/f x'g ;Dej 5 eg]/ eGg' s] ts{;Ët x'G5 / < Ps c;fdfGo dfG5]df o:tf] ;a} s'/fx? k"/f x'g' eg]sf] c;Dej s'/f] xf] . oL w]/} h:ff] 36gfx? pgsf] dfgjLo lgoGq0feGbf aflx/sf] s'/f] lyof] / o;/L o;sf] nflu s'g} Ps dha't cflTds ;fdYo{sf] cfjZostf kb{Yof] . clg of] ToxL cflTds ;fdYo{ xf] o;n] ltgLx? b]lvg'eGbf w]/} klxn] cujQmfx?nfO{ k|s6 u/fpg'ePsf] lyof] . tL s'/fx? 36gfx? eP eg]/ xfdLn] o;/L yfxfF kfpg ;S5f} / s'g k|df0fn] tL s'/fx?nfO{ dfGotf lbg ;lsG5 < k|To]s 36gfx? pxfFsf] hGd x'g'eGbf ;of}+ jif{ cl3 cudjf0fL ul/Psf]n] pxfFsf] ;dsflngx?n] tL s'/fx?sf] ujfxL lbP / o;df ;dfj]z u/]sf] k|To]s cudjf0fLnfO{ c? n]vdf /fv] . oL 36gfx?sf] ;l7stfnfO{ dfGotflbg] ltgLx?sf gfpFx? / ujfxLx?nfO{ xfdLn] oxfF b]vfPsf 5f} / oL ;a} s'/fx?nfO{ afOandf ePsf ltgLx?sf zky vfPsf ujfxLåf/f :ki6Ls/0f ug{ ;lsG5 .

1.74

b'i6sf] ljkl/t zlQmn] pxfsf] lj/f]w u/]tfklg o; PSnf] dfG5] h;n] cfˆgf] hLjgsfn e/ slxNo} cfˆgf] 3/af6 #)) dfOneGbf 6f9f ofqf u/]gg, slxNo} /fhg}lts sfof{nonfO{ ;Dxfn]gg jf dxfg eg]/ lrlgg] s'g} 7"nf] nIonfO{ k|fKt u/]gg, t/}klg pgn] dfG5]n] ;f]Rg jf sNkgf klg ug{ g;Sg] u/L ;Dk"0f{ ;+;f/nfO{ g} k|efj kf/] . pgsf] zq'x?n] pxFf k/d]Zj/sf] k'q ePsf] bfaL u/]sf sf/0fn] df/], t/ pgLx?sf cl3 /flvPsf k|df0fx? h;n] pxfF k/d]Zj/sf] k'q eg]/ k|dfl0ft ub{Yof], To;nfO{ x]g{ rfx]Gg .

1.75

dflg;x?n] pxfFnfO{ OGsf/ u/]tfklg cGwf]nfO{ b]Vg] t'Nofpg], nË8f]nfO{ lx8\g] jf d/]sfnfO{ af}/L p7fpg ;Sg] pxfFsf] ;fdYo{df s;}n] z+sf u/]gg . pxfFn] s'i6/f]uLnfO{ lgsf] kfg'{eof] , s;}n] klg pxfF em'6f jf gSsnL eg]/ cf/f]k nufPgg, t/ ha pxFfn] dfG5]sf] kfk Ifdf ug'{eof] / kfkk"0f{ ls6f0f'af6 z'4 ug'{eof], pxfFnfO{ cf/f]k nufOof], klqmof] / dfl/of] . pxfFsf] zq'x?n] s]jn k/d]Zj/n] dfq} kfksf ls6f0f'af6 dfG5]nfO{ arfpg ;Sg] s'/ffnO{ hfg]tfklg / pxfFn] u/]sf sfdx?nfO{ b]v]tfklg, o; s'/fnfO{ ltgLx?n] :jLsfg{ rfx]gg . o;sf] ;§fdf ltgLx?n] o;f] ug{sf] nflu b'i6af6 zlQm kfPsf] xf] eg]/ cf/f]k nufP . To;} ePtfklg lj/fdLx?nfO{ rËfO{ ug]{ tyf d[To' ePsfx?nfO{ af}/L p7fpg] ;fdYo{ pxfFdf ePsf] s'/fnfO{ slxNo} OGsf/ u/]gg .

1.76

o]z"n] a'‰g'eof]

kfksf ls6f0f';Fu ;Defljt ;d:ofsf ;a} s'/fx?nfO{ pxFfn] /fd|f];Fu a'‰g'ePsf] lyof] eg]/ pxfFn] cGTodf /fd|f];Fu a[‰g' ePsf] lyof] eg]/ pxfFsf] ;f/f hLjge/df l;sfpg'ePsf] s'/fx?af6 :ki6;Fu b]Vg ;lsG5 . pxFfnfO{ a'‰g' cfjZos O{Zj/Lo ts{ nfO{ j/bfg :j?k kfPsfx?lar pxfFn] To; ;d:ofsf] ;dfwfg ug{nfO{ v]Ng' ePsf] d'Vo e"ldsfnfO{ lrGg'eof] / lj:tfl/t ?kn] pgLx?nfO{ j0f{g ul/lbg'eof] .

s] tkfO{n] a'‰g'eof] < pxfFn] cfkm" h] x'F eg]/ bfaL ug'{ ePsf] 5 s] To;nfO{ :jLsf/ / ljZjf; ug{ ;Sg' x'G5 < s] tkfO{ Oltxf;sf] crDd nfUbf] k|df0fnfO{ ljZjf; ug{ ;Sg' x'G5 < jf tkfO{ pxfFsf] zq' h:t} pxfFsf] cl:tTjnfO{ OGsf/ ug]{ / o;/L pxfFnfO{ k7fpg'x'g] :juL{o lktfnfO{ OGsf/ ub}{ kfksf ls6f0f'sf] sf/0f cfzfljlxg eP/ ;bfsf] ;tfj6df kfl/g'af6 pxfFåf/f aRg OGsf/ ug'{x'g] < 5gf}6 cfkm} ug'{xf]; .

1.77

olb tkfO{n] pxfFnfO{, kfksf] ;d:ofk|lt k/d]Zj/sf] pQ/ eg]/ :jLsf/ ug{' x'Gg eg], tkfO{n] pxfFnfO{ OGsf/ ug'{x'g]5 . ToxfF s'g} dWodfu{ /x]sf] 5}g . ca s] x'G5 t < o]z"nfO{ /f]Sg] sf]lzz ug]{ ToxL ;fdYo{n] tkfO{nfO{ klg /f]Sg vf]Hg] 5 . olb k/d]Zj/ ;fFrf] x'g'x'G5 eg], b'i6sf] zlQm klg ;fFrf] xf] / tkfO{n] o;nfO{ ljZjf; ug{ ;Sg' kb{5 . tkfO{nfO{ unt dfu{df tyf unt s'/fx?tkm{ n}hfgsf] nflu ltgLx?n] ;Sbf] sf]lzz ug]{5g, t/ d"v{ gaGg'xf]; . tkfO{sf] ljj]s cyf{t k|f0fnfO{ ltgLx?sf] 5nsk6df kg{af6 /f]Sg'xf]; .

1.78

kfksf] ls6f0f'sf k/LIf0f -d'lQmsf] Ps pbfx/0f_

/f]ux? tyf b'lift s'/fx?af6 :jtGq eP/ afFRgsf] lglDt dfG5]nfO{ ;[li6 ul/Psf] lyof] t/ d[To'sf] nflu xf]Og . p;nfO{ ;bfsf] lglDt agfOPsf] ePtfklg p;sf] ;[li6sf k|f/lDes lbgx?df, kfksf] sf/0fn] ubf{ NofOPsf] 3fts ljdf/sf] lzsf/ pm x'g k'Ub5, h;n] p;sf] z/L/ / cfTdfdf ljdf/Lx?, si6x? / d[To' Nofof] . o;sf] 5nkmnsf] p2]Zosf] nflu xfdLn] o;nfO{ {kfk ls6f0f' eg]/ zLif{s lbPsf 5f} .

1.79

 ls6f0f'x? eg]sf] lgsf] gx'g] /f]ux? x'g h;n] Sofg;/ h:tf sf]lzsfx? pTkfbg ub{5g . Sofg;/sf ls6f0f' s]–s] x'g < Sofg;/sf sf]lzsfx? eg]sf ;[li6stf{n] agfpg'ePsf] ;fdfGo pTkfbgsf] sfo{qmdnfO{ gk5\ofpg] tyf htfefjL tl/sfn] xnrn ug]{ pu| sf]lzsfx? x'g . o;sf] ;§fdf oL sf]lzsfx?n] z/L/nfO{ hLljt tyf :j:y?kn] /fVgsf] nflu cfjZos kg]{ s'/fx? hDdf ug'{sf] ;§fdf :j:y h}ljs k|0ffnLnfO{ afBf k'¥ofpg] s'/fx? hDdf ug{ yfNb5 .

1.80

pkrf/sf] w]/} h;f] tl/sfnfO{ ls6f0f'x?n] /f]Sg] sfd ub{5 . logLx?n] z/L/sf] ;fdfGo ultnfO{ dfq} c;/ kfg]{ xf]Og ls xfd|f] dl:tisnfO{ klg c;/ kfb}}{ dfgjLo ljrf/ / :jefjdf klg c;fdfGotfx?nfO{ pTkGg u/fpFb}5 . k|To]ssf] cfkfb}}{ dfgjLo ljrf/ / :jefjdf klg c;fdfGotfx?nfO{ pTkGg u/fpFb}5 . k|To]ssf] cfˆg} ljz]if :jefj;lxt, ToxfF y'k} lsl;dsf ls6f0f'x? lg/Gt/ ?kdf ;lqmo e}/x]sf x'G5g . s'g} klg ls6f0f'n] klxn] xfd|f] z/L/nfO{ cfs|d0f ub{5 / To;kl5 dl:tisnfO{ ub{5 eGg] s'/f kl/If0fn] b]vfpF5 eg], s'g} klg ls6f0f'n] cfTdfnfO{ c;/ u/]sf] rflxF clxn];Dd b]vfpg ;s]sf] 5}g . To;}ul/ kfksf ls6f0f'x?n] klg ljkl/t lbzfdf sfd ub{5g . o;n] klxn] dfG5]sf] cfTdfnfO{ lzsf/ agfpFb5, To;kl5 dl:tis / cGtdf z/L/nfO{ gi6 kfb{5 . o;n] ;Dk"0f{ hLjgnfO{ g} c;/ kfb{5 / olb ;oddf pkrf/ ul/Pg eg], o;n] cgGt d[To'nfO{ NofpFb5 . dfgjsf] z'?jftb]lv g} oL ls6f0f'x? olt ;lqmo eP ls o;n] lg/Gt/?kdf k|To]s dfG5]nfO{ c;/ tyf ;+s|d0f kfb}{ cfO/x]sf] 5 . k|To]s k"vf{ o;sf] lzsf/ ePsf 5g eg], o;sf] cfs|d0f x'g] s'/f cl3af6 g} to e};s]sf] 5 . cl3af6} o;n] cfpg]jfnf k"vf{nfO{ cfs|d0f ug]{ tof/L ul//x]sf] x'G5 .

1.81

o:tf ls6f0f'x?nfO{ /f]Sg / o:tfdfly ljho x'gdf ;kmn ePsf] Pshgfsf] /utaf6 ag]sf] vf]k nufP/ dfq} o; /f]uaf6 5'6sf/f kfpg ;lsG5 . kfksf] ls6f0f'sf] lj?4 n8\g] l;t}df cg'bfg lbOPsf] /utaf6 ag]sf] vf]k nufpg OR5f ug]{ hf];'s}n] klg o; vf]knfO{ k|of]u u/] . /f]u;Fu n8\g;Sg] jf k|ltsf/ ug{;Sg] tTjnfO{ cfkm}leq pTkfbg ug{;Sg] 5 .         

1.82

o:tf] 8/nfUbf] ;+s|d0fnfO{ /f]Sg o]z" gcfP;Dd s;}n] ;s]gg / pxfFljgf slxNo} s;}n] ;Sg] klg 5}gg . lsg < lsgsL hGdg] ;a} dflg;x?;Fu kfksf] ls6f0f' j+zf0f'ut tl/sfn] cfpg] ub{5 / dflg;, To;df cl3af6} ;|lqmldt e};s]sf] x'G5 . o]z"sf] /utn] dfq} lgsf] kfg{ ;S5 . o;sf] zlQmnfO{ pxfFn] dfq} k/fho ug'{eof], / cfTdfnfO{ gi6 kfg{'af6 arfpg / o;sf] b'lift c;/af6 afFRg cfjZos lgsf] t'Nofpg] Ifdtf o;df dfq} /x]sf] 5 . 8/nfUbf] kfksf] ls6f0f'nfO{ k/fho ug{ / cfjZos hLjgnfO{ k|bfg ug{, o]z"sf] /ut, Tolta]nf;Dd ;lqmo x'g;s]g hlta]nf;Dd cg'bfglbg] JolQm dg'{ ePg, dl/;s]kl5 dfq} Tof] /ut zlQmzfnL eof] .

1.83

o]z"sf] kfkljlxg jlnbfgn] dfq} dflg; hfltnfO{ plrt rËfO{ k|bfg u¥of] . pxfFsf] /utåf/f algPsf] /f]u;Fu n8\g;Sg] IfdtfnfO{ lng'xf]; / cgGt;Dd afFRgxf]; jf OGsf/ ug"{xf]; / ;bfsf] nflu dg'{xf]; . o; vf]kljgf dfG5]sf] cfTdf gi6 x'g]5, / o;sf] ;fy} z/L/ / dl:tis klg gi6 x'g]5g . v|Li6sf] /utsf] rËfO{sf] zlQmåf/f dfG5]sf] cfTdf afFRg]5, p;sf] dl:tis gjLs/0f x'g]5 / p;sf] z/L/ dlxldt eP/ cgGtdf kl/jt{g x'g]5 . xfdL k|z:ttfsf] hLjg;Fu afFrf} eg]/ pxfFn] si6 ef]Ug'eof] / xfd|f] nflu dg'{eof] . pxfFsf] af}/L p7fO{åf/f d[To'dfly ljho x'g'eof] clg pxfF hLljt x'g'ePsf] sf/0f xfdL klg hLljt x'g]5f}, of] tkfO{sf] ljrf/ xf] / lg0f{o klg cfˆg} xf] .

1.84

gofF lgodsf] d08nLx?

olb tkfO{n] hLjgnfO{ 5fGg'eof] eg], tkfO{n] o]z"nfO{ / pxfFsf] /utdf ePsf] rËfO{sf] zlQmnfO{ ljZjf; ug'{kb{5, To;kl5 l;s]/ x's{gsf] nflu d08nLdf hfg'kb{5 . d08nL s] xf] < d08nL eg]sf] ljZjf;Lx?sf] ;d"x xf] hf] Ps;fy e]nf eP/ v|Li6sf] af/]df l;Sg] tyf cf/wgf ug]{ ub{5g / k/d]Zj/sf] cflTds j/bfgx? k|of]u ug]{, Ps–csf{sf] ;]jf ug]{, pT;fxlbg] tyf k/d]Zj/sf] /fHo a9fpg] sfddf Ps;fy nflu kg]{ ;d"x xf] . b'i6sf] zlQmn] ljZjdf, o; ;+;f/ / d08nLdf k|j]z -cfs|d0f_ u/]sf] 5 . e|ldt gx'g'xf]; . tkfO{n] x/]s s'/fnfO{ xf]lzof/L;fy k/LIf0f ug]{ / gofF lgodsf] jrg cg';f/ t'ngf ug'{ kb{5 . /fd|f] clek|fo ePsf] JolQmnfO{ klg Ps}k6s ljZjf; gu/L xfNg'xf]; . ltgLx? klg e|ldt x'g;S5g .

1.85


d08nLx? ;/n 5g . k/d]Zj/sf] cf/fwgf ;/n 5 / afOanLo ;Totf / k/d]Zj/sf] ;Totfx? a'‰gsf] nflu ;lhnf 5g . olb ltgLx? To:tf x'b}gg eg], tL s'/fx? ;DefJo?kdf k/d]Zj/sf jrg xf]Ogg . tkfO{ cfˆg} nflu afOan k9g'xf]; / cfˆgf] hLjgdf afOansf ;Tox?nfO{ k|s6 ug]{ ;fFrf] lzIfsx?nfO{ vf]hL ug'{xf]; / pgLx?af6 l;Sg'xf]; . afOansf] gofF lgodnfO{ k9\g'xf]; / ;fFrf] d08nL s] xf] vf]hL ug'{xf]; / To;}df /xg'xf]; / Tof] eGbf afx]s c? s]xL gug'{xf]; . To;eGbf c? s]xL xf]Og . To;}sf] ;]jf ug'{xf]; / tkfO{sf] cflTds kl/jf/sf] cGo ;b:ox?;Fu klg / o;/L pgLx?;Fu} Ps;fy lg/Gt/?kdf a9]/ ;fFrf] O{;fO hLjgsf] cfgGbnfO{ kfpg ;Sg'x'g]5 / tkfO{nfO{ k|]d ug]{, agfpg] / rËfO{ ug]{ k/d]Zj/sf] ;]jfsf] cfgGbnfO{ yfxfF ug'{x'g]5 .

1.86

gSsn ug]{x?b]lv xf]lzof/ x'g'xf];

w]/}n] O{;fO x'F eg]/ bfaL u5{g . O{;fOTj eg]sf] gfdwf/L dfq} xf]Og t/ lhpg'kg]{ hLjg xf] . olb tkfO{sf] bfaL cg';f/sf] tkfO{sf] hLjg x'b}g jf 5}g eg], tkfO{ kfv08L xf] / ;fFrf] O{;fO xf]Og . k/d]Zj/sf] jrg x]g'{xf];, ;fFrf] O{;fO s] xf] vf]Hg'xf]; / ljZjf;of]UonfO{ ;fyL agfpg'xf]; . h;/L tkfO{n] pxfFsf] OR5fnO{ k"/f ug{ vf]Hg'x'g]5, k/d]Zj/n] tkfO{sf] dfu{nfO{ lgb]{zg / cflz; lbg'ePsf] xf]; . cfpg] hLjgdf x'g] kfksf] ls6f0f'n] Nofpg] kl/0ffdaf6 pxfFn] :jtGq kfg'{x'g]5 . tkfO{sf] ;[li6stf{n] pxfFsf] lgoGq0fsf] pQ/sf] vf]hL ul//xg'ePsf] 5 . o]z"sf] /utåf/f pknAw agfOPsf] d'lQmsf] cflTds vf]knfO{ :jLsf/ ug{ rfxfg'x'G5 < tkfO{sf] hLjgsf] kfknfO{ wf]P/ kvfNgsf] lglDt / afFsL /x]sf] hLjg pxfFnfO{ lbg ;lsof]; eg]/ s]jn k/d]Zj/;Fu k|fy{gf dfq} ug'{xf]; . kfk cflTds /f]u xf] / cflTds pkrf/sf] vfFrf] o;nfO{ kb{5 . o]z"n] pxfFsf] jlnbfgåf/f o;nfO{ k|bfg ug'{ePsf] 5, cflTds vf]k / xfdLnfO{ rËfO{ lbO{ cgGtsf] hLjgsf] nflu cfjZos ;a} pQ/x? lbg'x'G5 . :jLsf/ ug'{xf]; . pxfFn] ;a} ;Totfdf tkfO{nfO{ 8f]¥ofpgsf] nflu kljq cfTdf lbg'x'g]5 . kljq cfTdfnfO{ To;f] ug{ cg'dlt lbg'xf]];, of] ug{ clt ts{;+Ët 5 .