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d;Fu l;s

gf]6 M n]vsn] eGg vf]h]sf] s'/fx? /fd|/L a'em\g s[kof n]vssf] ;Gb]z k9\g'xf];\ .

4.1

k'/fgf] tl:j/ h:t}

s] tkfO{+n] slxNo} cfk"mnfO{ c? s;}sf] kfl/jfl/s k[i7e"ldsf d'lg tyf ljutsf tl:j/ PNjdx? Ps–Ps u/L kN6fP/ x]/]sf] kfpg'ePsf] 5 < olb tkfO{+;u of] cg'ej ePsf] eP tkfO{++ ;DejtM d h:t} aflx/ lg:s]/ v'Nnf xfjfdf :jtGqtfsf ;fy ;f; k]mg{ w]/}a]/ kv{g ;Sg'ePg xf]nf . of] ;fFRr} g} crDdsf] 5 ls s;/L ;do / kl/l:yltx? kl/jt{g x'Fb} cfO/x]sf 5g\, ha tkfO{+ s;}nfO{ k|]d ug'{x'G5 / afFsL hLjg p;Fu} latfpg rfxg'x'G5 . tkfO{+sf] k|]ldnf] ;DaGwn] tkfO{+nfO{ pm k|ltsf] rfxgf dfq xf]Og Tof] ljz]if JolQm;Fu ;DalGwt s'g} klg s'/fsf] af/]df hfGg, k9\g, jf p;sf k'/fgf tl:j/x? x]g{ tkfO{+ OR5's x'g'x'G5 .

4.2

ha xfdL d;LxL ePsf] sf/0f v|Li6;Fu JolQmut k|]ldnf] / ulx/f] ;fFrf] ;DaGw :yflkt x'G5 . o;n] ToxL kl/0ffd lbG5 . olb s;}n] v|Li6 o]z"nfO{ ;fFrf] k|]d u5{ eg] To;n] pxfFsf] af/]df w]/} s'/f hfGg] agfpF5 h;sf] sf/0f xfdLn] l;Sg uO/x]sf] gofF s'/fsf] af/]df hfGg] pT;fx / pdËnfO{ gjLs/0f ub{5 .
h] eP klg olb v|Li6;Fusf] xfd|f] ;DaGw k/Dk/fut s'/fx?df g} cfwfl/t 5 eg] s;}sf] kl/jf/sf] k'/fgf] kmf]6f] PNjd x]g{ nfu]h:t} ‰ofp nfUg] vfnsf] x'g]5 . ljZjf;df cfpFb} u/]sf] JolQmx?n] of] s'/f dxz'; ub{5g\ lsg pgLx?n] o]z"nfO{ lrg]sf 5g\ clg w]/}n] of] ljZjf; ub{5g\ ls pxfFnfO{ lrGg' / pxfFsf] af/]df yfxf kfpg' Pp6} xf], s;sf] af/]df lstfa k9]/ hfgsf/L lng' / JolQmut ?kdf ;DaGw :yflkt u/]/ p;nfO{ lrGg'df t km/s x'G5 lg xf]Og /, csf]{ s'/f olb s;};Fu tkfO{+sf] glhssf] ulx/f] ;s/fTds ;DaGw 5 eg] p;sf] hLjgsf x/]s gofFaf6 tkfO{+n] cfk"mnfO{ gofF s'/f l;sfpg' x'G5 tkfO{+n] dg k/fPsf] c? s;}sf] af/]df hfGg] rfxgfn] tkfO{+x?nfO{ Tof] JolQm;Fusf] ;DaGwnfO{ emg\ ulx/f] / glhs agfOlbG5 / o]z";Fusf] ;DaGw klg To:t} xf] ls o]z";Fu xfdLn] hlt glhssf] ;DaGw :yflkt ub{5f}+ Tof] slxNo} klg k"0f{ x'Fb}g .

4.3

o]z"nfO{ lrGg'

hlt w]/} xfdLn] o]z"sf] af/]df yfxf ub{5f}+ Tolt w]/} xfdLn] pxfFnfO{ k|]d ug{ sf/0fx? yfxf ub{5f}+ . o]z" xfdL w]/}n] dxz'; u/]eGbf dxfg\ x'g'x'G5 .
w]/} d;LxLx?n] of] ljZjf; ub{5g\ ls pgLx?n] hfg]sf] afOansf JolQmx?dWo] Ps JolQm x'g'x'G5 hf] v|Li6 o]z" x'g'x'G5 . s] ;fFRr} pgLx?n] pxfFnfO{ lrg]sf 5g\ t . w]/}nfO{ of] s'/f yfxf 5 ls o]z" k/d]Zj/sf] k'q x'g'x'G5 hf] a]yn]xd b]lv cl:tTjdf cfpg'ePsf] xf] . t/ ;To rflxF of] xf] ls pxfF a]yn]xddf hGd lng'eGbf cufl8 g} cl:tTjdf x''g'x'GYof] s'g} klg s'/fsf] ;[li6 x'g'eGbf cufl8 b]lv g} lktf;Fu pxfF x'g'x'GYof] .-o"xGgf !&M%_

æca x] lktf ;+;f/sf] ;[li6 x'g cl3 tkfO{+sf] ;Dd'v d]/f] h'g dlxdf lyof], To;}n] cfˆgf] pkl:yltdf dnfO{ dlxldt kfg'{xf];\Æ -o"xGgf !&M%_.

4.4

v|Li6 ;[li6stf{ x'g'x'G5 <

o]z" of] a|Dxf08 ;[li6 ul/g'eGbf cufl8b]lv cl:tTjdf cfpg' ePsf] dfq xf]Og t/ of] ;f/f a|Dxf08df ePsf s'/fnfO{ ;[li6 ug]{ ;[li6stf{ g} pxfF -o]z"_ x'g'x'G5 . pxfFn] k|fs[lts ;+;f/ / cflTds ;+;f/sf ;a} s'/fx? ;[li6 ug'{eof] . pxfFn] cflTds / k|fs[lts clwsf/x? ;[li6 ug'{eof] . ;a} lsl;dsf l;+xf;g, k|wfgtf / zlQmx? pxfFn] g} ;[li6 ug'{eof] . pxfFn] g} :ju{b"tx? h:tf cflTds :j?k / dfgj hLjg h:tf k|fs[lts hLjgsf] ;[li6 ug'{eof] . -o"xGgf !M!–#Ù Plkm;L #M(Ù sn:;L !M!#–!*_
æcflbdf jrg x'g'x'GYof], jrg k/d]Zj/;Fu x'g'x'GYof], clg jrg k/d]Zj/ x'gx''GYof] . pxfF cflbdf k/d]Zj/;Fu x'g'x'GYof] . ;a}yf]s pxfFåf/f algP, / algPsf] s'g} yf]s klg pxfFlagf algPgÆ -o"xGgf !M!–#_.

Æ;a} s'/f ;[hg'x'g] k/d]Zj/df o'u–o'ub]lv n'Kt /x]sf /x:osf] of]hgf s] xf], ;f] ;a} dflg;nfO{ v'n:t u/fpg] cg'u|x dnfO{ lbOof]Æ -Plkm;L #M(_.

æpxfFn] xfdLnfO{ cGwsf/sf] /fHob]lv 5'6fpg'eof], / cfˆgf lk|o k'qsf] /fHoleq xfdLnfO{ ;fg'{ePsf] 5 . pxfFdf xfd|f] p4f/, cyf{t\ kfksf] Ifdf 5 . pxfF cb[Zo k/d]Zj/sf] k|lt?k, ;f/f ;[li6sf Ho]i7 x'g'x'G5, lsgls pxfFdf g} ;a}yf]s ;[li6 ePsf lyP . :ju{df / k[YjLdfly ePsf b[Zo / cb[Zo yf]sx?, rfx] l;+xf;gx?, rfx] k|e'Tjx?, rfx] k|wfgtfx?, rfx] clwsf/x? ;a} yf]s pxfFåf/} / pxfFs} lglDt ;[lhPsf x'g\ . pxfF g} ;a} s'/feGbf cufl8 x'g'x'G5, / pxfFdf g} ;a} s'/f afFlwP/ /x]sf 5g\ . pxfF z/L/, cyf{t\ d08nLsf lz/ x'g'x'G5, pxfF g} z'? x'g'x'G5, d/]sfx?af6 hLljt x'g]x?df pxfF Ho]i7 x'g'x'G5, tfls k|To]s s'/fdfly pxfF ;jf]{Rr xf]pmg\Æ -sn:;L !M!#–!*_.

4.5

tLg h;n] /]s8{ /fVb5g\

…k/d]Zj/Ú df Pp6f JolQmn] xf]Og tLg JolQmTjsf] Pstfdf ;xsfo{ / zlQm afF8kFmf8 u/L sfo{ ;Dkfbg u/]sf] x'G5 . -! o"xGgf %M&_. k/d]Zj/sf] :j?kdf dflg; ;[li6 ug{ oL tLg} hgfsf] ;xdlt eof] -pTklQ !M@^_ . …sf]Ú cyjf …s]Ú xf] < k/d]Zj/sf] :j?k oflgsL k/d]Zj/ h:t} eg]sf] <
v|Li6df cb[Zo k/d]Zj/sf] :j?k x'g'x'G5 -sn:;L !M!%_. v|Li6 k|fs[lts :j?k x'g'x'G5 . k|fs[lts ?kdf k/d]Zj/sf] k|ltlglw o]z" x'g'x'G5 .
o]z"n] eGg'eof], æolb ltdLn] dnfO{ b]v]sf 5f}+ eg] ltdLn] lktfnfO{ b]v]sf 5f} o"xGgf !$M(, lsg o:tf] ePsf] < lsgeg] k/d]Zj/ cfTdf x'g'x'G5 To;sf/0f pxfFnfO{ xfdL aflx/L cfFvfn] b]Vg ;Sb}gf}+ -o"xGgf $M@$_. o;af6 xfdL kljq cfTdfsf] af/]df klg a'‰g ;S5f}+ .

æ/f]uLn] pxfFnfO{ eGof], …xh"/, h'g a]nf kfgL 5rNsfOG5 dnfO{ hn–s'08df xflnlbg] d]/f] sf]xL dflg; 5}g, d hfFbfhfFb} deGbf cufl8 csf]{ dfG5] kfgLdf cf]ln{xfN5ÚÆ -! o"xGgf %M&_.

æpxfF cb[Zo k/d]Zj/sf] k|lt?k, ;f/f ;[li6sf Ho]i7 x'g'x'G5Æ -sn:;L !M!%_.

æo]z"n] ltgnfO{ eGg'eof], …lkmlnk, oltsf] ;do;Dd d ltdLx?;Fu 5', t}klg ltdLn] dnfO{ lrGb}gf} < h;n] dnfO{ b]v]sf] 5 To;n] lktfnfO{ b]v]sf] 5 . ltdL s;/L eGg ;S5f}, xfdLnfO{ lktf b]vfOlbg'xf];\ <ÚÆ -o"xGgf !$M(_

æpxfFnfO{ ;fdl/of eP/ hfg'kYof]{Æ -o"xGgf $M@$_

4.6

s] tkfO{+n] pTklQ !M@^ df of] s'/fnfO{ Vofn /fVg'eof] hxfF k/d]Zj/nfO{ …xfdLnfO{Ú, …xfd|f]Ú h:tf ax'jrg k|of]u ul/Psf], of] lsg < lsgls k/d]Zj/sf] # hgfdf k"0f{ x'G5 pxfF Ps dfq} xf]Og . oL JolQmTj Pstfdf k"0f{ x'G5 . Joj:yf ^M$Ù o"xGgf !&M!!,@!_ xfd||f] k|e' k/d]Zj/ Ps dfq k|e' x'g'x'G5 hf] zlQmzfnL / clwsf/k"0f{ x'g'x'G5 eg]/ ;a}n] a'‰g} kb{5 . k/d]Zj/ ;w}+el/ Ps gf;sf] x'g'x'G5 . o]z"sf] alKt:dfnfO{ ljrf/ ug'{xf];\ ha pxfF ob{g gbLsf] lsgf/df pleg'eof] :ju{af6 lktfn] af]Ng'x'Fbf 9's'/sf] ?kdf kljq cfTdf cf]ln{g'eof] . oxfF # hgf JolQmTj tLg 7fpFdf 5g\ . o]z"n] cfˆgf] lktf;Fu au}+rfaf6 af]Ng'eof], q"m;af6 af]Ng'eof], s] s;}n] ljZjf; ug{ ;Sb5 pxfF cfk}m;Fu af]ln/xg'ePsf] lyof] <

æclg k/d]Zj/n] b'O{ ljzfn Hof]ltx? agfpg'eof] — 7"nf] Hof]lt lbgdfly k|e'Tj ug{, / ;fgf] Hof]lt /ftdfly k|e'Tj ug{ . pxfFn] tf/fx? klg agfpg'eof]Æ -pTklQ !M!^_.

æx] O;|fPn, ;'g, k/dk|e' xfd|f k/d]Zj/ Pp6} k/dk|e' x'g'x'G5Æ -Joj:yf ^M$_.

æd k]ml/ ;+;f/df /xFlbgF, t/ logLx? t ;+;f/df /xG5g\ . drflxF tkfO{+sxfF cfO/x]5' . kljq lktf, tkfO{+n] dnfO{ lbg'ePsf] tkfO{+sf] gfpFdf ltgLx?nfO{ ;'/lIft /fVg'xf];\, / xfdL h:t} ltgLx? klg Ps xf]pmg\Æ -o"xGgf !&M!!_.

æls ltgLx? ;a} Ps xf]pmg\ . x] lktf, h;/L tkfO{+ ddf x'g'x'G5, / d tkfO{+df, To;/L ltgLx? klg xfdLdf xf]pmg\, / tkfO{+n] dnfO{ k7fpg'eof] egL ;+;f/n] ljZjf; u/f];\Æ -o"xGgf !&M@!_.

4.7

o]z" v|Li6 k/d]Zj/ lktfsf] Ps dfq k'q x'g'x'G5 lsgeg] pxfF dfq} ;Lw} lktfaf6 hGdg'ePsf] xf] . h;sf] sf/0f pxfFnfO{ xfdL k/d]Zj/sf] k'qsf] ?kdf b]Vb5f}+, t/ w]/}n] of] ;f]Rg] ub{5g\ ls lktf dfq To:tf] JolQmTj x'g'x'G5 h;nfO{ lktf eGg ;lsG5 . cfbdaf6 o]z" cfP h:t} lktfaf6 klg o]z" cfpg'eof] . w]/}h;f]sf] nflu o]z" k/d]Zj/ x'g'x'G5 eGg] s'/f cGof}nsf] ljifo ePsf] 5 . s;/L k/d]Zj/sf] k'q eP/ s;/L o]z" k/d]Zj/ x'g'x'G5 Û …k/d]Zj/Ú zAb Ps cf]xf]bf xf] lzIfs, 8fS6/, /fhfh:tf] s'g} lglZrt gfd xf]Og .

æcflbdf jrg x'g'x'GYof], jrg k/d]Zj/;Fu x'g'x'GYof], clg jrg k/d]Zj/ x'gx'GYof]Æ -o"xGgf !M!_.

æclg jrg b]xwf/L xg'eof], / cg'u|x / ;Totfn] k"0f{ eO{ xfd|f aLrdf af; ug'{eof] . xfdLn] pxfFsf dlxdf b]Vof}+, h'g dlxdf lktfaf6 cfpg'ePsf] Psdfq k'qsf] h:tf] lyof]Æ -o"xGgf !M!$_.

4.8

…;d"xÚ zAb h:t} M lxa|" efiffdf zAb ax'jrgdf dfu k|of]u x'G5 / …;d"xÚ zAbn] w]/} hgfP klg h;/L ;'Gbfv]/L Pp6f h:t} ;'lgG5 To:t} k/d]Zj/ zAbnfO{ klg ax'jrg xf]Og Psjrgsf] ?kdf ljrf/ ug]{ ul/G5 . gf]6 M ax'jrgdf k|of]u ubf{ ;d"x zAbnfO{ w]/} ;d"x eGg ;lsG5 t/ a'‰g'kg]{ s'/f Pp6} ;d"xdf w]/} hgf 5g\ eGg] klg a'lemG5 . To;}sf/0f Onf]lxd k/d]Zj/ zAb klg k/d]Zj/ zAbleq PseGbf a9L JolQmx? 5g\ eGg] a'emfpF5 .
of] s'/f a'e]m/ s'g} crDd dfGg] s'/f 5}g lsgls zAb Ps jrg eP/ klg ax'jrg a'emfpg] c? klg 5g\ h:t} M kl/jf/, l6d, sIff cflb o;/L g} k/d]Zj/ zAbn] klg Ps eGbf a9L JolQmsf] ;d"xnfO{ phfu/ ub{5 .

4.9

:ju{df /]s8{ /fVg] k/d]Zj/ klg Ps geO{ # hgf 5g\ -! o"xGgf %M&,*_ / oL # hgf eg]sf] lktf jrg -k'q o"xGgf !M!_ / cfTdf oL # JolQmTj o;/L p:t} 5g\ ls cfTdf -hLjg_ kfgL -h;n] z/L/nfO{ hLljt kfb{5 . / To;kl5 /ut h;n] hLjgnfO{ c8\ofO/fVb5 . oL # Ps} x'g\ . xfdL klg v|Li6 ;Fu Ps xf}+ . h;/L pxfF lktf;Fu Ps x'g'x'g5 . -o"xGgf ^M@! . / ;a} ;[li6sf ;a}eGbf ;jf]{Rr kb eg]s} …k/d]Zj/ x'g'x'G5 . of] kb s'g} /fhf dxf/fhf / lgb]{zseGbf w]/} 7"nf] xf] . oL tLg JolQmn] g} cnf}lss zlQmnfO{ cfˆgf] ;fydf /fv]sf x'G5g\ . oL # hgf g} a|Dxf08nfO{ rnfpg] /fhsLo kl/jf/ x'g\ / k/d]Zj/sf] k'q, zflGtsf] /fhs'df/, cb[Zo k/d]Zj/sf] k|lt?kdf cfk"mnfO{ k|:t't u/L logLx?n] Ps–csf{nfO{ v'zL kfb{5g\ .

4.10

O{Zj/Lo ;DaGw

;a} s'/f k/d]Zj/ lktfaf6 cfP / pxfFn] cfˆgf] k'q o]z"nfO{ ;a} s'/f lbP/ k"0f{tfdf k7fpg'eof] -sn:;L !M!(_. o;sf/0f o]z"nfO{ cfk"mnfO{ lktf;Fu a/fa/L ;f]Rg'ePg -lkmlnKkL @M&_. ;fFRr} s'g} Ps hgf dflg; klg c? s;};Fu zlQmdf a/fj/ t/ clwsf/df km/s x'g ;S5g\ h:t} Ps hgf z}lgsn] cfk"mnfO{ cfb]z lbg] cfk"meGbf pRr cf]xf]bfsf ;}lgsn] af]Sg] xltof/ af]Sg ;S5 olta]nf zlQms} s'/f ug]{ xf] eg] b'j};Fu pxL xltof/ ePsf] sf/0f zlQm Ps} xf] k]ml/ klg clwsf/df xf]Og . To;sf/0f k'q clwsf/df a/fa/ x'g'x'Gg .

4.11

v|Li6n] ;a} s'/f lktfsf] xftdf lng'eof] t/ s] h'g s'/f klxNo} b]lv pxfFsf] lyPg Tof] s'/f lktfnfO{ lbg'eof] / < lktfk|lt pxfFsf] k|]d dxfg\ lyof], l;4 lyof], h'g s'/f Jojxf/df plqgsf] lglDt ?jfOdf kl/0ft eof] . v|Li6 o]z"n] lktfnfO{ lbg;Sg] Ps dfq s'/f oxL lyof] ls pxfFsf] :j]lR5s l;4 ;dk{0ftf . of] s'/f lbg ;Sg'df g} pxfFn] lktfnfO{ cfk"meGbf dxfg\ agfpg ;Sg'x'GYof] -o"xGgf !$M@*_. o;/L lktfnfO{ cfˆgf] OR5f bzf{P/ pxfFn] lktfnfO{ ;[li6 / k/d]Zj/Zj/Lo kl/jf/sf] ;a} eGbf pRr dlxldt :yfgdf /fVg'eof] .

4.12

v|Li6 hf] xfd|f] dxfk"hfxf/L x'g'x'G5 pxfF lktfsf] l;+xf;gdf a:g'x'Gg t/ lktfsf] bflxg] kl§ a:g'x'G5 lxa|" *M! . o]z", pxfFsf] lktfsf] OR5f k"/f ug{sf] nflu cfpg'eof] o"xGgf $M#$ / pxfFn] hlxn] klg lktfsf] OR5f k"/f ug]{ sfd ug'{x'G5 . o"xGgf *M@(, ^M#*–$) . :d/0f /xf];\ ls o]z"sf] k/d]Zj/ x'g'x'GYof] / pxfFsf] k/d]Zj/ rflxF pxfFsf] lktf g} x'g'x'GYof] . s] oL s'/fx?n] lktf rflxF of] O{Zj/Lo kl/jf/sf] d'Vo JolQm x'g'x'G5 eg]/ k|dfl0ft ub}{g / <

4.13

o]z" sf] k/d]Zj/ x'g'x'G5 .

o]z" k/d]Zj/sf] k'q x'g'x'G5 / lktf k'qeGbf dxfg\ x''g'x'G5 . of] O{Zj/Lo zfxL kl/jf/n] :ju{ / k[YjLsf ;f/f clwsf/ cwLg ub{5g\ . o]z" /fhfx?sf /fhf / k|e'x?sf k|e' x'g'x'G5 . / prflng' x'g] pxfF x'g'x'G5 . pxfFsf] gfpFdf ;a} ;[li6n] b08jt u/L pxfF g} k|e' x'g'x'G5 egL :jLsf/ ug'{kb{5 lkmlnKkL @M!)–!! . o]z" k/d]Zj/ x'g'x''G5 / pxfFsf] klg k/d]Zj/ x'g'x'G5 . pxfFsf] k/d]Zj/ rflxF lktf x'g'x'G5 . h;nfO{ tkfO{+ bf;sf] ?kdf cf1fsf/L x'gsf] lglDt k'sfg'{x'G5, tkfO{+ pxfFsf] bf; x'g'x'G5 . h;nfO{ tkfO{+ cfk"mdfly /fVg'x'G5 . p;sf] ;]jf cf/fwgf ug'{x'G5 / pm k|lt cf1fsf/L /xg'x'G5 pg} tkfO{+sf] k/d]Zj/ xf] . s] o]z"n] lktfsf] ;]jf ug'{x'G5 < cf/fwgf ug'{x'G5 < cf1fsf/L /xg'x'G5 < olb To;f] xf] eg] pxfFsf] Jojxf/n] pxfFsf] lktf pxfFsf] O{Zj/ klg xf] egL k|dfl0ft
ub{5 .

4.14

k/d]Zj/ s'g} lglZrt gfd xf]Og, k|:yfg @)M# cg'';f/ of] Pp6f kb xf] . dfly pNn]v ul/P cg';f/ xfdLn] ;]jf / cf/fwgf ug]{ s'g} klg s'/f xfd|f] k/d]Zj/ xf] . o]z"n] cfˆgf] lktfnfO{ k/d]Zj/ eg]/ eg]sf 5g\ ;fy} pxfFn] k/d]Zj/nfO{ ug'{kg]{ h'g Jojxf/ xf] Tof] u/]sf 5g\ . cF, tkfO{+ o; s'/fnfO{ 7Ls;Fu k9\g'xf];\ . xfd|f] :juL{o lktf o]z" v|Li6sf] klg k/d]Zj/ x'g'x'G5 . o]z" k/d]Zj/ x'g'x'G5 / o]z";Fu k/d]Zj/ x'g'x'G5 . -dQL @&M$^ Plkm:L !M#,!&, lxa|" !M*–( k|sfz #M!@_.

ætLg ah]lt/ o]z" o;f] eg]/ 7"nf] ;f]/n] s/fpg'eof], …Onf]O{, Onf]O{, nfdf ;jvygL <Ú cyf{t\, …x] d]/f k/d]Zj/, x] d]/f k/d]Zj/, tkfO{+n] dnfO{ lsg TofUg'eof] <ÚÆ -dQL @&M$^_.

æxfd|f k|e' o]z" v|Li6sf k/d]Zj/ / lktfsf] k|z+:ff xf];\, h;n] xfdLnfO{ :juL{o :yfgx?df x/]s cflTds cflzifn] v|Li6df cflzjf{b lbg'ePsf] 5Æ -Plkm;L !M#_.

æpxfFn] cfP/ ltdL 6f9f ePsf / ghLs ePsfx?nfO{ ldnfksf] ;';dfrf/ ;'gfpg'eof]Æ -Plkm;L @M!&_.

æt/ k'qsf] ljifodf rflxF pxfF eGg'x'G5, …x] k/d]Zj/, tkfO{+sf] l;+xfg ;bf;j{bfsf] lglDt /lx/xG5, / Gofosf] bfhb08 tkfO{+sf] /fHosf] /fhb08 xf] . tkfO{+n] wfld{stfnfO{ k|]d ug'{ePsf] 5, / cwd{nfO{ 3[0ff ug'{ePsf] 5 . o;/sf0f k/d]Zj/, tkfO{+sf k/d]Zj/n] tkfO{+nfO{ cfˆgf ;fyLx?eGbf a9\tf u/]/ xif{sf] t]nn] cfleif]s ug'{ePsf] 5Æ -lxa|" !M*–(_

æh;n] lhT5, To;nfO{ d d]/f k/d]Zj/sf dlGb/sf] Pp6f :tDe agfpg]5', / pm ToxfFaf6 slxNo} aflx/ lg:sg]5}g . d To;df d]/f k/d]Zj/sf] gfpF n]Vg]5', / d]/f k/d]Zj/sf zx/sf] gfpF, cyf{t\ o?zn]d n]Vg]5', hf] d]/f k/d]Zj/af6 :ju{b]lv tn cfpF5 . cfˆg} gofF gfpF klg d To;df n]Vg]5'Æ -k|sfz #M!@_.

4.15

wd{zf:qsf] kfgfe/L pNn]v ul/Psf] s'/f g} oL g} lktf k'q / kljq cfTdf hf] Ps x'g'x'G5 . k|]d / Pstfdf x'g'x'G5 . Pp6f kl/jf/df x'g'kg]{ Pstf / ;xdtL xf], Ps csf{sf] k"0f{ ;xdtdf x'g'x'G5 . lgisif{df of] eGg' plrt x'G5 ls :ju{df n]vf lng] oL # JolQmx?;Fu k|ltlglwx? x'G5g\ hf] Ps csf{df ldn]/ sfd ub{5g\ .

4.16

…k/d]Zj/Ú zAb ;'g]/ olb xfdL lktflt/ e'msfOPsf 5f}+ eg] o]z"n] xfdLnfO{ bf]if lbg'x'G5 .
lsgls pxfFn] of] s'/fsf] lgZrotf lbg'ePsf] 5 ls k/d]Zj/sf] jrg h'g lnlvt ?kdf k|fKt 5 Tof] ;a}eGbf dxTjk"0f{ s'/f xf] . k/d]Zj/ lktfnfO{ ;f/f dlxdf lbg'kb{5 . tkfO{+ o;f] eGg ;Sg'x'G5 ls o]z"sf] afgL g} lktfnfO{ k/d]Zj/sf] ?kdf b]vfpg' xf], olb unt b[li6sf]0fn] ubf{ …k/d]Zj/Ú zLif{s leq k'q / kljq cfTdf b'j}nfO{ slt k6s k"jf{u|xL k"jf{u|x /flv/x]sf x'G5f}+ .

…k/d]Zj/Ú zAb o:tf] kb xf] h'g kbsf] nflu o]z" of]Uo x'g'x'G5 . o]z" k/d]Zj/ x'g'x'G5 . o"xGgf !M!,!$, o"xGgf @)M@&, ! lydf]yL !M!, ! ltdf]yL @M#Ù ! ltdf]yL #M!^Ù tLt; !M# ltt; @M!)Ù #M$Ù lxa" !M* .

4.17

j]jf:tf lbg] JolQm

rfln; jif{;Dd O;|fPnLx?n] ld> b]zsf] lgb{oL zf;ssf] cwLgdf TotLa]nf;Dd si6 ef]u] ha;Dd k/d]Zj/n] pgLx?nfO{ 5'6sf/f lbgsf] nflu df]zfnfO{ k7fpg'ePg . ld> b]zsf] bf;Tjaf6 lg:sbf pgLx? wg ;DklQ;lxt lg:s], Tolta]nf pgLx?n] Oltxf;df g} gePsf] s'/f dxz'; u/] .

k/d]Zj/n] pgLx?nfO{ lbg] k|lt1f ug'{ePsf] x'G5 / dx aUg] b]zdf ;'v ;Dj[l4 / ;DkGgtfdf /xg] ;kgf pgLx?n] klg b]v]sf lyP . nfn ;d'b| tg{sf] nflu k/d]Zj/n] gbLnfO{ g} b'O{ efu agfOlbg'ePsf] / kmf/f]sf] ;]gf cfpFbf jufPsf] 36gf ha ltgLx?n] b]v] ta pgLx?n] k/d]Zj/n] pgLx?nfO{ ljz]if k|]d ug'{ePsf] yfxf u/] . pgLx?nfO{ k"0f{ hfgsf/L eof] ls pgLx?nfO{ 5'6sf/f lbg] sfd k/d]Zj/af6 ePsf] xf] .

4.18

pgLx?sf] k/d]Zj/nfO{ pgLx?n] v'zL kfg]{ sf]lz; t u/] t/ s;/L < pgLx?sf cu'jf df]zfnfO{ k/d]Zj/n] hln/x]sf] kf]y|fdf k|:yfg #M$ df s;/L 5'6sf/f u/fpg] eGg] ;DaGwdf atfpg'ePsf] lyof] < s] df]zfn] ca k/d]Zj/n] OR5fP cg';f/ ug{ ;s] < k/d]Zj/n] j]jf:tf lbgsf] lglDt df]zfnfO{ kljq kj{tdf af]nfP k|:yfg !(M@) . ToxfF k/d]Zj/n] df]zfnfO{ O;|fPnLx?n] s] ug]{ gug]{ eGg] af/]df ;fwf/0f :jMljj]sL bz cf1fsf] j]jf:tf lbP . olb s'g} cf1fdf cgf1fsf/L ePdf To;sf] k|folZrt s;/L ug]{ eGg] tl/sf klg lbg'eof] . x/]s jif{sf] cGTodf x/]s kl/jf/af6 pgLx?sf] kfk Ifdfsf lglDt Pp6f z'4 kf7f] k|:yfg !@M@% Nofpg'kb{Yof] . of] alnbfg;lxtsf] kZrftfkn] jif{e/L pgLx?sf] kl/jf/df ePsf] kfk 9fSbYof] .

æt/ ;fl8{;df slt JolQm 5g\, h;n] cfˆgf n'uf la6'nf] kf/]sf 5}gg\ . ltgLx? d;Fu ;]tf j:q nfP/ lxF8\g]5g\, lsgls ltgLx? of]Uosf 5g\Æ -k|:yfg #M$_.

æclg k/dk|e' ;Lg} kj{tsf] 6fs'/df cf]n]{/ cfpg'eof], / k/dk|e'n] df]zfnfO{ kj{tsf] 6fs'/fdf af]nfpg'eof], / df]zf dfly pSn]/ uPÆ -k|:yfg !(M@)_.

æltdLx?sf] vf]6/lxt xf];\ — Ps jif{sf] kf7f] . ltdLx?n] Tof] e]8f cyjf afv|faf6 lng"Æ -k|:yfg !@M%_.

4.19

sNkgf ug'{;\ ls Ps kl/jf/ hf] tfgfzfx x's'dL zf;ssf] cGofo / cTofrf/af6 5'6sf/f kl5 gofF hLjgsf] z'?jft u/]sf] 5 . of] kl/jf/;Fu gofF ;Dj[4zfnL ;kgfx? 5g\ h'g pgLx?sf k/d]Zj/n] pgLx?sf lglDt tof/ ul/lbPsf 5g\ . clxn] pgLx?sf] cj:yf cs}{ 5 . t/ s]xL e]8f / afv|f dWo] pgLx?n] ;Dk"0f{ vf]6 /lxtsf] z'4 kf7f] lbP . pgLx?sf] ;Dk"0f{ vfgbfgdf ;Dj[4zfnL k'vf{x? aGg] ;kgf b]v] . oxfF ;Dd ls pgLx??n], c? ljz]if s'/fsf] cltl/Qm pgLx?n] cfˆgf] 3/df /xgsf] nflu cg'dlt lbP .

cfˆg} xftåf/f pgLx?n] To;nfO{ v'jfpFy], x'g;S5 ls pgLx?sf] jyfgdf ePsf] ;a} ;b:osf] gfd lyof] . ca, lsgeg] pgLx?n] kfk u/]sf 5g\ c? kl/jf/sf ;b:on] Joj:yfnfO{ kfng u/]sf] 5}gg\ eg] pgLx?n] kf7f]sf] alnbfg r9fpg} kb{Yof], c? :jLsf/of]Uo x'Gy]g . o;nfO{ pgLx?n] ;Gb's /flvPsf] kfndf cu'jfO{ ug}{kb{Yof] . pgLx?n] cfˆg} xftn] To;sf] 3fF6L sf6]/ /ut au]sf] b]Vg'kb{Yof] pgLx?n] s] ;f]lr/x]sf x'Gy] xf]nfg . x'g;S5 pgLx?n] of] s'/f dxz'; uy]{ ls of] Pp6f ;fgf] lg/Lx kf7f] h;n] s;}sf] s]xL ljuf/ u/]sf] 5}g pm c? s;}n] u/]sf] kfksf] nflu dg'{ kl//x]sf] 5 . x'g;S5 of] klg ;f]Ry] xf]nfg\ ls pgLx?n] olb tL ;fwf/0f bz cf1fsf] kfng ul/lbPsf] of] lgbf]{if ;[li6 -hLjg_n] dg{'kg]{ lyPg . pgLx?sf] kfk g} o;sf] d[To'sf] sf/0f ag]sf] 5 .

4.20

ha O;|fPnLx?n] bf;Tjsf] huf 5f]8]Ù pgLx? k/d]Zj/;Fu s:tf] ;DaGw /fVg] eGg] s'/fdf cGhfg lyP . pgLx?n] cfk"mx? k/d]Zj/sf] b[li6sf]0fdf l7s ePsf] ljrf/ u/] . h] eP klg oL bz cf1fsf] j]jf:yfn] ltgLx?nfO{ cfk"m k/d]Zj/af6 slt 6f9f 5' eGg] s'/f yfxf lbO/x]sf] lyof] . k/d]Zj/ cufl8 Gofosf] lglDt wfld{stfdf sf]xL klg pleg ;Sb}g eGg] s'/f l;ls/x]sf lyP . kfkn] ubf{ d[To'sf] ;hfo s;}n] lt/L/fVg'k/]sf] 5 .

4.21

tkfO{n] hjfg s]6fs]6LnfO{ w]/} dxËf] pkxf/ lbFb} x'g'x'G5 eg] cjZo klg o;sf] dxTj s] xf] eGg] s'/f a'emfO{lbg'x'Gg, To:t} k/d]Zj/ dflg; hfltnfO{ olt 7"nf] pkxf/ lbg nfUg'ePsf] 5 h'g ;a}eGbf dxfg\ 5 . k/d]Zj/ ;f/f dfgj hfltsf] lktf ;a} kl/jf/sf] dflns, ePsf] x'gfn] dflg; hfltsf] kfksf] d"No r'sfpgsf] lglDt Ps l;4 y'df lbg}nfUg'ePsf] lyof] of] alnbfg Joj:yfnfO{ zf;g ug{sf] nflu xf]Og t/ Pp6f o:tf] alnbfg h;n] k"0f{ ?kdf ;Gt'li6 lbG5 / of] s]xL ;dosf] nflu xf]Og t/ ;bf ;j{bfsf] nflu .
k/d]Zj/n] cfˆg} k'q lbg'x'G5, hf] Ps lgbf]{if y'df x'g'x'G5 h;åf/f dflg; / k/d]Zj/aLrsf] ;DaGw k'gM :yflkt x''G5 . of] alnbfg dfgjLo ;f]reGbf w]/} k/ 5, of] ;f]Rbf g} ;f; hfG5 ls h:tf] x'G5 . oxL l;4, lgbf]{if y'dfåf/f k/d]Zj/n] cfˆgf hgx?nfO{ jlnbfgsf] cg'e"lt ;a}nfO{ u/fpg rfxg'x'G5 .

4.22

kmf/f] /fhfsf]df hfg'eGbf klxnf df]zfn] k/d]Zj/;Fu ;f]w] æs;n] k7fof] egL ;f]Wof] eg] d}n] s] eGg] < k/d]Zj/n] eGg'eof] d pxL x'FÆ eGg]n] k7fPsf] x'F eGg" . of] s'/f df]zf / kmf/f] /fhfn] a'e]m ls a'e]mgg\ Tof] t yfxf 5}g t/ xfdLn] a'‰g'kb{5 . k/d]Zj/n] elg/xg'ePsf] lyof] ls d pxL cfpg]jfnf dxfg\ x'g'x'g]jfnf, pxL h;n] d 9f]sf x'F eG5 . -;Gb'sdf /xg'x'g]h:t}_ d ;+;f/sf] Hof]lt x'F, ;ftj6f ;fdbfgdf /flvPsf] aQL h:t} d c;n uf]7fnf] x'F, hf] e]8fsf] lglDt cfˆg} Hofg} lbg tof/ /xG5 -aln lbg] y'df h:t}_ pxfF g} x'g'x'G5 hf] oxfF kljq :yfgdf k|j]z ug'{x'G5, k[YjLdf dfq x}g :ju{df klg . pxfFn] dfq xfd|f] lglDt dWo:y ug'{x'G5 / k/d]Zj/nfO{ :jLsf/of]Uo alnbfg aGg'x'G5 . pxfF g} lgbf]{if y'df, k/d]Zj/sf] k'q x'g'x'G5 .

4.23

jfrfsf] ;Gb"s rfFbLsf] kftfdf lkQnn] e'm08\ofOPsf] lyof] . lkQn Gofosf] ;Í]t xf] . rfFbL o]z"sf] ;Í]t xf] . v|Li6 o]z"sf] sfFrdf Gofo ug]{ clwsf/ 5 . o]z"sf] ;]jsfOdf klxnf] zAb ækZrftfk u/Æ lyof] -c;'4tf af6 cnu a;_ jfrfsf] ;Gb"sf] hdfgfdf klxnf Åbo ;kmf gu/];Dd sf]xL klg k/d]Zj/;Fu jft ug{ ;Sb}gYof] . o;n] pgLx?df ePsf] kmf]xf]/Lkg, /Qmkft ug]{ xft h'g k/d]Zj/;Fu ;Ëlt ug'{eGbf klxnf ;kmf x'g'kb{5 To; s'/fnfO{ ;Í]t ub{5 ! sf]l/GyL !!M@&–#@ jfrfsf] ;Gb"snfO{ 9fSg] aflx/sf] efu hgfj/sf] 5fnfn] hf]8]/ agfOPsf] x'GYof] h;n] e]6\g] :yfgnfO{ hLljt hGt'af6 ag]sf] hgfpF5 . x]g'{xf];\ k|:yfg @^M!$Ù ! kq'; @M% .

æo;sf/0f h;n] cof]Uo /Lltn] k|e'sf] /f]6L vfG5, ls k|e'sf] srf}/faf6 lkpF5, Tof] dflg; k|e'sf] z/L/ / /utnfO{ ckljq t'NofPsf]df bf]ifL 7xl/g]5 . x/]s dflg;n] cfk"mnfO{ hfFrf];\, clg dfq To;n] /f]6L vfcf];\, / srf}/faf6 lkcf];\ . lsgls k|e'sf] z/L/nfO{ glrgLsg h;n] vfG5 / lkpF5 To;n] Tof] vfPsf] / lkPsf] sf/0fn] cfk"mdfly b08 Nofpg]5 . o;}sf/0f ltdLx?dWo] w]/} hgf b'a{n / /f]uL 5f}, / slt hgfrflxF dl/];s]sf 5g\ . t/ xfdL ;fFRr} cfk}mn] cfk}mnfO{ hfFr]sf 5f}+ eg] xfdL Gofodf kg]{5}gf}+ . t/ ha k|e'n] xfd|f] Gofo ug'{x'G5, ta xfdLnfO{ tf8\gf lbg'x'G5, tfls ;+;f/;Fu xfdL bf]ifL g7xl/cf}+Æ -! sf]l/GyL !!M@&–#@_.

æ/ftf] /Ën] nufPsf] e]8fsf 5fnfsf] 5t kfn 9fSgnfO{ agfpg', / To;sf] dfly 9fSgnfO{ ;Lnsf 5fnfsf] csf]{ Pp6f 5t agfpg"Æ -k|:yfg @^M!$_.

æltdLx? klg o]z" v|Li6åf/f k/d]Zj/sf] b[li6df u|x0fof]Uo cflTds alnbfg r9fpg] kljq k"hfxf/Llu/Lsf] lglDt hLljt kTy/e}+m cflTds 3/ aGb}hfcf]Æ -! kq'; @M%_.

4.24

jfrfsf] ;Gb"sn] k"0f{ ?kn] o]z"sf] af/]df atfpFb5, ljz]ifu/L aln lbg] :yfg / o;sf] agfj6sf] af/]df h;n] aln/x]sf] k|f]y|faf6 df]zf;Fu jft ug'{ePsf] lyof] < of] lktf, k'q / kljq cfTdfdWo] sf] x'g'x'GYof] < df]zfnfO{ Joj:yf lbg] sf] x'g'x'GYof] < afbnsf] vDafaf6 af]Ng] sf] x'g'x'GYof] < lbg/ft pgLx?nfO{ /Iff ug'{x'g] sf] x'g'x'GYof] < phf8 :yfgdf s;n] pgLx?sf] cu'jfO{ u¥of] / s;n] k|lt1f ul/Psf] b]zdf k'¥ofof] <

4.25

w]/}h;f] dflg;x?n] lktfn] eGb5g\ s]xLn] eG5g\ kljq cfTdf, t/ oL b'j} pQ/x? unt 5g\ . pxfF t k/d]Zj/ x'g'x'GYof]      hf] kl5 o]z" v|Li6 gfdn] lrlgg'eof] . of] xfdLn] s;/L eGg ;Sb5f}+ < tkfO{+ k|dfl0ft ug'{xf];\ . of] ljrf/ ug'{xf];\ ls df]zfn] bz cf1f lbg]jfnfsf] k5fl8sf] efu b]v] . k|:yfg @$M!), ##M@@ / o;nfO{ o"xGgf !M!*, ^M$^ ;Fu t'ngf ug'{xf];\ . / ! o"xGgf $M!@ df clxn];Dd lktfnfO{ s;}n] b]v]sf] 5}g egL pNn]v ul/Psf] 5 . olb To;f] xf] eg] df]zfn] s;nfO{ b]v] t < xf?g / c? ;Q/Lhgf l;g} kj{tdf e]6] s;sf] k5fl8sf] efu df]zfn] b]v] < ha xfdL z/L/df 5f}+ ToxL a]nf;Dd xfdLn] cflTds s'/fnfO{ b]Vg ;Sb}gf}= . k/d]Zj/ cfTdf x'g'x'G5, kljq cfTdf cfTdf x'gx''G5 To;sf/0f xfdL b]Vg ;Sb}gf}+ .

æTo;kl5 df]zf, xf?g\, gfbfa, caLx" / O;|fPnsf wd{–u'?x?dWo] ;Q/L hgf dfly pSn], / O;|fPnsf k/d]Zj/nfO{ b]v] . pxfFsf v'§fd'lg gL/n] 5fk]sf], cfsfzh:t} ;kmf ePsf] k]6Lh:tf] lyof] . t/ pxfFn] O;|fPnLx?sf gfOs]x?sf lj?4df cfˆgf] xft p7fpg'ePg, / ltgLx?n] k/d]Zj/nfO{ b]v] / vfgkfg u/] .
clg k/dk|e'n] df]zfnfO{ eGg'eof], ækljqdfly dsxfF cfP/ oxfF a;\ . t}+n] ltgLx?nfO{ l;sfpgnfO{ d}n] n]v]sf Joj:yf / cf1fx?sf lznf–kf6Lx? tFnfO{ lbg]5' .Æ
ta df]zf / ltgdf ;]js oxf]z" p7]/ k/d]Zj/sf] kj{tdf uP . df]zfn] wd{–u'?x?nfO{ eg], æxfdL ltdLx?nfO{ kv{ . xf?g\ / x"/ ltdLx?;Fu 5g\ . s;}sf] s]xL ljjfb eP ltgLx?sxfF hfpmg\ .Æ
ta df]zf kj{tdf pSn] / afbnn] kj{tnfO{ 9fls/fVof] . k/dk|e'sf] dlxdf ;Lg} kj{tdf /Xof], / afbnn] 5 lbg;Dd kj{tnfO{ 9fls/fVof] . ;ftf}+ lbgdf k/dk|e'n] afbnsf] aLraf6 df]zfnfO{ af]nfpg'eof] . O;|fPnLx?sf b[li6df k/dk|e'sf] dlxdfsf] ?k kj{tsf] 6fs'/fdf e:g kfg]{ cfuf]h:t} lyof] . ta df]zf afbnsf] aLrdf eP/ kj{tdf pSn], / ltgL kj{tdf rfnL; lbg / rfnL; /ft /x]Æ -k|:yfg @$M(–@)_.
s[kof k|:yfg @$ cWofodf !* kb;Dd dfq 5 @) kb;Dd 5}g of] r]s ug'{xf]nf Û

æd]/f] dlxdf ToxfFaf6 eP/ hfFbf tFnfO{ d To;sf] r§fgsf] wfFbf]df /fVg]5', / d ToxfFaf6 eP/ ghfpGh]n tFnfO{ d]/} xftn] 5f]lk/fVg]5' . To;kl5 d d]/f] xft p7fpg]5', /  t}+n] d]/f] kl5sf] efu b]Vg]5g\, t/ d]/f] cg'xf/rflxF b]lvg]5}gÆ -k|:yfg ##M@@–@#_.

æk/d]Zj/nfO{ s;}n] slxNo} b]v]sf] 5}g . lktfsf] ;fydf x'g'x'g] Ps dfq k'qn] pxfFnfO{ k|s6 ug'{ePsf] 5Æ -o"xGgf !M!*_.

ælktnfO{ s'g} dflg;n] b]v]sf] 5}g, s]jn p;n] dfq b]v]sf] 5 hf] k/d]Zj/af6 cfPsf] xf], p;}n] lktfnfO{ b]v]sf] 5Æ -o"xGgf ^M$^_

æk/d]Zj/nfO{ s;}n] slxNo} b]v]sf] 5}g . olb xfdLn] Pp6fn] csf{nfO{ k|]d u¥of}+ eg] k/d]Zj/ xfdLdf /xg'x'G5, / pxfFsf] k|]d xfdLdf l;4 ePsf] x'G5Æ -! o"xGgf $M!@_.

æk/d]Zj/ cfTdf x'g'x'G5, / pxfFsf cf/fwsx?n] cfTdf / ;Totfdf cf/fwgf ug'{k5{Æ -o"xGgf $M@$_.

4.26

k/d]Zj/n] hln/x]sf] kf]y|f / afbnsf] vDafaf6 af]Ng'eof], t/ ToxfF s;n] af]nL/xg'ePsf] lyof] < k/d]Zj/ lktfn] ls k'qn] < o"xGgf !$M^
olb sf]xL klg o]z"åf/f afx]s cem s;}åf/f klg lktfsxfF hfg ;Sb}g eg] k'/fgf] lgodsf] kfgfx?df af]Ng] eljiojQmf / ;DdfggLo k'vf{x? sf] lyP t <
olb lktf dflg; hut;Fu af]ln/xg''ePsf] 5 eg] xfdLnfO{ lsg dWo:ystf{ oflgsL o]z" rflxG5 <

æo]z"n] ltgnfO{ eGg'eof], …af6f] ;To / hLjg d g} x'F . dåf/f afx]s sf]xL klg lktfsxfF cfpg ;Sb}gÆ -o"xGgf !$M^_.

4.27

nfn ;d'b|nfO{ b'O{ efu kfl/lbg] JolQm o]z" x'g'x'GYof], hln/x]sf] kf]y|f l;g} kj{taf6 df]zf;Fu af]Ng] klg o]z" x'g'x'GYof] . cfuf]sf] Hjfnf / afbnsf] vDaf eP/ O;|fPnLx?nfO{ cu'jfO{ ug]{ /Iff ug]{ klg o]z" x'g'x'GYof] . pxfF o]z" o]z" o]z" g} x'g'x''GYof] h;n] pgLx?nfO{ k|lt1f ul/Psf] d'n'sdf 8f]¥ofpg'eof] . dGg v'jfpg'eof] . r§fgaf6 af]Ng'eof] phf8 e"lddf /]vb]v ug]{ / k|lt1f ul/Psf] b]zdf 8f]¥ofpg] pxfF g} x'g'x'GYof] . ! sf]l/GyL !)M!–$

æefO xf], ltdLx?n] of] s'/f hfg egL d rfxG5', ls xfd|f k'vf{x? ;a afbnd'lg lyP, / ;a} ;d'b|sf] aLraf6 eP/ uP . clg df]zfdf ltgLx? ;a}n] afbn / ;d'b|df alKt:df kfPsf lyP . ;a}n] Pp6} cflTds ef]hg cfP . ;a}n] cflTds kfgL lkP, lsgls ltgLx?sf ;fy;fy} lxF8\g] cflTds r§fgrflxF v|Li6 g} x'g'x'GYof]Æ -! sf]l/GyL !)M!–$_.

4.28

y'df sxfF x'g'x'G5 <

k/d]Zj/n] ca|fxfd / ;f/f;Fu k|lt1f ug'{eof] pTklQ !&M!(–@! clg ca|fxfdn] k/d]Zj/df ljZjf; u/] . ca|fxfd k/d]Zj/df olt;Dd ljZjf;of]Uo lyP ls pgL k/d]Zj/sf] cf1fdf cfˆgf] Pp6} k'q klg alnbfg ug{ tof/ eP, pgn] k/d]Zj/df e/f];f u/] ls k/d]Zj/n] c? g} y'df h'6fpg'x'G5 . pTklQ @@M&–( . ha xfdL lsË h]D; e;{gsf] afOanaf6 k9\b5f}+ xfdLnfO{ yfxf x'G5 ls pgsf] zAbdf s;/L eljiojf0fL lyof] eg]/ æd]/f] k'q xf]dalnsf] nflu k/d]Zj/ cfk}mn] y'df h'6fpg'x'G5 . ;fFRr} g} k/d]Zj/ cfk}mn] xf]d aln h'6fpg'eof] . Tof] alnbfg h'g rflxF clGtd alnbfg . alKt:df lbg] o"xGgfn] o;/L eg]sf 5g\ . æx]/ Û ;+;f/af6 kfk d]6fO n}hfg] y'dfÆ o"xGgf !M@( …vÚ . h;n] y'df h'6fpg'eof] pxfF y'df x'g'eof] / pxfF o]z" x'g'x'GYof] .

4.29

k'/fgf] s/f/df o]z"nfO{ xfdL Joj:yf lbg] JolQmsf] ?kdf lrG5f}+ . lsgeg] Joj:yf ljgf kfk s] xf] dflg;n] hfGg ;Sb}gy] . Joj:yf lagf kfk cfPg /f]dL %M!# . Joj:yf xfd|f] nflu lzIfs aGof] / h;n] s'g} klg dflg; cfˆg} wfld{stfdf pleg ;Sb}g eGg] s'/f b]vfof] lkmlnKkL #M( ltt; #M$–% . ha kl/jt{gsf] ;do cfpF5 -o]z"sf] cfudg lxa|" (M!)_ To;kl5 Joj:yfsf] s'g} cfjZostf ePg . k/d]Zj/n] dflg;x?sf] Åbodf To;nfO{ n]lvlbg'ePsf] 5 . @ sf]l/GyL #M#
olb xfdL kljq cfTdfsf] cu'jfOdf lxF8\5f}+ eg] ca xfdL Joj:yfsf] cwLgdf 5}gf}+ . unftL %M!* . xfdL Joj:yf /fVg] sf]lz; t u5f}{+ t/ ;fFrf] s'/f rflxF xfdL cg'u|xåf/f arfOPsf 5f}+ . -unftL %M$, ^M!!–!#, ofs"a @M!)_
æ/ ;Dk"0f{ ?kn] d pxfFdf ePsf] kfOg ;s"F . Joj:yfdfly cfwfl/t ePsf] d]/f] cfˆg} wfld{stf xf]Og, t/ d]/f] wfld{stf oxL xf], hf] v|Li6dfly lge{/ x'G5, h'grflxF ljZjf;åf/f k/d]Zj/af6 cfpg] wfld{stf xf]Æ -lkmlnKkL #M(_.
æt/ ha k/d]Zj/ xfd|f d'lQmbftfsf] enfO{ / k|]d k|s6 eof], ta xfdL cfk}mn] wfld{stfdf u/]sf sfdaf6 xf]Og, t/ pxfFsf] cfˆg} s[kfcg';f/ k'ghL{jgsf] :gfgåf/f / kljq cfTdfåf/f ePsf] gjLs/0faf6 pxfFn] xfdLnfO{ d'lQm lbg'eof]Æ -ltt; #M$–%_.

æltdLx?n] g} b]vfpFb5f}, ls ltdLx? v|Li6sf kq xf}, cyf{t\ xfd|f] ;]jfsf] kmn, h'g kq d;Ln] xf]Og, t/ hLljt k/d]Zj/sf cfTdfn] n]lvPsf] xf] — 9'Ëfsf kf6Ldf xf]Og, t/ df;'sf Åbo–kf6LdfÆ -@ sf]l/GyL #M#_.

ætL s]jn vfg], lkpg] / ljleGg ljlwsf :gfgx? dfq x'g\, cyf{t\ zf/Ll/s wd{–ljlwx? x'g\, h'gx? ;'wf/sf] ;do gcfp~h]n :yfkgf ul/Psf lyPÆ -lxa|" (M!)_.

æt/ olb ltdLx? kljq cfTdfåf/f 8f]¥ofOPsf xf} eg]tf ltdLx? Joj:yfsf] cwLgdf x'Fb}gf}Æ -unftL %M!*_.

æltdLx? hf] Joj:yfåf/f wdL{ 7xl/g rfxG5f}, ltdLx? v|Li6af6 cnUu ePsf 5f} . ltdLx? cg'u|xaf6 tn v;]sf 5f}Æ -unftL %M$_.

æk/d]Zj/sf] b[li6df Joj:yfaf6 sf]xL dflg; wdL{ 7xl/Fb}g eGg] s'/f k|ToIf 5 . lsgeg] æwdL{rflxF ljZjf;åf/f g} lhpg]5 .Æ Joj:yfrflxF ljZjf;dfly cfwfl/t 5}g, a?  æh'g dflg;n] oL sfd u5{, tL ltg}åf/f lhpg]5 .Æ xfd|f lglDt ;/fk ag]/ v|Li6n] xfdLnfO{ Joj:yfsf] ;f/fkaf6 df]n lt/]/ 5'6fpg'eof], lsgls æsf7df e'ml08g] x/]s >flkt x'G5Æ eGg] n]lvPsf] 5Æ -unftL #M!!–!#_.

ælsgls h;n] ;Dk"0f{ Joj:Yff kfng u5{ t/ Pp6} s'/fdf r'S5 eg], Joj:yfsf ;a} s'/fdf Tof] bf]ifL 7xl/Psf] x'G5Æ -ofs"a @M!)_.

4.30

æ/ ;Dk"0f{ ?kn] d pxfFdf ePsf kfOg ;s"F . Joj:yfdfly  cfwfl/t ePsf] d]/f] cfˆg} wfld{stf xf]Og, t/ d]/f] wfld{stf oxL xf], hf] v|Li6dfly lge{/ x'G5, h'grflxF ljZjf;åf/f k/d]Zj/af6 cfpg] wfld{stf xf]Æ -lkmlnKkL #M(_.

æt/ ha k/d]Zj/ xfd|f d'lQmbftfsf] enfO / k|]d k|s6 eof], ta xfdL cfk}mn] wfld{stfdf u/]sf sfdaf6 xf]Og, t/ pxfFsf] cfˆg} s[kf cg';f/ k'ghL{jgsf] :gfgåf/f / kljq cfTdfåf/f ePsf gjLs/0faf6 pxfFn] xfdLnfO{ d'lQm lbg'oef]Æ -ltt; #M$–%_.

æltdLx?n] g} b]vfpFb5f}, ls ltdLx? v|Li6sf kq xf}, cyf{t\ xfd|f] ;]jfsf] kmn, h'g kq d;Ln] xf]Og, t/ hLljt k/d]Zj/sf cfTdfn] n]lvPsf] xf] — 9'Ëfsf kf6Ldf xf]Og, t/ df;'sf Åbo–kf6LdfÆ -@ sf]l/GyL #M#_.

ætL s]an vfg], lkpg] / ljleGg ljlwsf :gfgx? dfq x'g\, cyf{t\ zf/Ll/s wd{–ljlwx? x'g\, h'gx? ;'wf/sf] ;do gcfpGh]n :yfkgf ul/Psf lyPÆ -lxa|" (M!)_.

æt/ olb ltdLx? kljq cfTdfåf/f 8f]¥ofOPsf xf} eg]tf ltdLx? Joj:yfsf] cwLgdf x'Fb}gf}Æ -unftL %M!*_.

æltdLx? hf] Joj:yfåf/f wdL{ 7xl/g rfxG5f}, ltdLx? v|Li6af6 cnu ePsf 5f} . ltdLx? cg'u|xaf6 tn v;]sf 5f}Æ -unftL %M$_.

æk/d]Zj/sf] b[li6df Joj:yfaf6 sf]xL dflg; wdL{ 7xl/Fb}g eGg] s'/f k|ToIf 5 . lsgeg] æwdL{rflxF ljZjf;åf/f g} lhpg]5 .Æ Joj:yfrflxF ljZjf;dfly cfwfl/t 5}g, a? æh'g dflg;n] oL sfd u5{, Tof] ltg}åf/f lhpg]5 .Æ xfd|f lglDt ;/fk ag]/ v|Li6n] xfdLnfO{ Joj:yfsf] ;/fkaf6 df]n lt/]/ 5'6fpg'eof], lsgls æsf7df e'ml08g] x/]s >flkt x'G5Æ eGg] n]lvPsf] 5Æ -unftL #M!!–!#_.

ælsgls h;n] ;Dk"0f{ Joj:yf kfng ug]{ t/ Pp6} s'/fdf r'S5 eg], Joj:yfsf ;a} s'/fdf Tof] bf]ifL 7xl/Psf] x'G5Æ -ofs"a @M!)_.

4.31

gofF lgoddf eGbf k'/fgf] lgoddf o]z"nfO{ b]Vg ;lsG5 eg]/ Pp6f s'/fn] b]vfpF5 lsg < lsgeg], gofF lgoddf pxfF cfˆgf] lktfsf] k|sfzdf cfpg'eof], lktfs} OR5f cg';f/ sfd ug'{eof], pxfFn] cfˆg} OR5fdf s]xL klg ug'{ePg . v|Li6df efO{ jf lk|ox? xf] 6]8 a'|s; (Ted Brooks_ n] n]v]sf] "I was a Flaky Preache" gfds k':ts k9] kZrft, dnfO{ of] ljZjf; eof] ls pgn] hlt sfd of] k':tsdf u/] Tof]eGbf /fd|f] d ug{ ;lSbgF . To;}n] pgsf] cg'dltdf pgs} n]vf]6af6 d of] s'/f k|:t't ub{5' .

o]z"n] k/d]Zj/sf] c;n u'0fx? k|s6 ug'{eof] .

4.32

æk/d]Zj/nfO{ s;}n] slxNo} b]v]sf] 5}g . lktfsf] ;fydf x'g'x'g] Ps dfq k'qn] pxfFnfO{ k|s6 ug'{ePsf] 5Æ -o"xGgf !M!*_

k'qn] lktfsf] u'0f÷rl/q k|s6 ug'{ePsf] 5 . æ3f]if0ff ug'{ jf k|s6 ul/Psf]Æ eGgfn] o]z"åf/f xfdLdf k|ToIf ?kdf k|s6 ug'{÷JoQm ug'{ xf] . jf:tjdf oxL sf/0f xf] lsg o]z"nfO{ …ODdfg'PnÚ eGg] gfd lbOof], h;sf] cy{ æk/d]Zj/ xfdL;Fu x'g'x'G5 .Æ k/d]Zj/ xfd|f] ;f]rljrf/ b]lv 6f9f x'g'x'Gg . pxfFsf] u'0f / jrg b]xwf/L eof] / clxn] xfdL afOan vf]n]/ pxfFsf] hLljt ?k b]V5f}+ .

4.33

xfdLnfO{ yfxf 5 ls k/d]Zj/sf] k'q cfpg'ePsf] 5 / xfdLnfO{ pxfFnfO{ a'‰g] ;dem zlQm lbg'ePsf] 5 . tfls xfdLn] a'‰g ;sf}+ ls pxfF dfq ;To x'g'x'G5 / xfdL pxfFsf] k'q v|Li6 o]z" df 5f}+ hf] ;To x'g'x'G5 . oxL g} ;To k/d]Zj/ clg cgGt hLjg xf] . ! o"xGgf %M@)
k/d]Zj/ b]lvg ;Sg'x'G5 eGg] s'/fnfO{ ha ;Dd dgg\ ub}gf}+ . ta;Dd xfdL cGof}ntfdf g} afFlr/x]sf x'G5f}+ . k/d]Zj/nfO{ ca xfdL v|Li6 o]z"åf/f b]Vg ;S5f}+ .

o]z" v|Li6 cb[Zo k/d]Zj/sf] :j?k x'g'x'G5 . sn:;L !M!%

4.34

…k|ltlaDaÚ zAbsf] cy{ …p:t}Ú xf] To; sf/0f xfdL v|Li6 o]z"df k/d]Zj/nfO{
b]V5f}+ .
pxfFsf] JolQmTj / dlxdfnfO{ k|:t't ug{ rlDsnf] eP/ cfpg'eof] lxa|" !M# .

4.35

o]z" k/d]Zj/sf] :j?ksf] jf:tljs k|:tf]tf x'g'x'G5 . o]z" k/d]Zj/sf] rl/qnfO{ k|:t't ug{ dfq xf]Og t/ pxfF k"0f{ ?kdf lktfsf] k|sfzn] hfu[tL Nofpg cfpg'eof] . k/d]Zj/sf] k"0f{tfdf k|sfz lbgsf] lglDt o]z" z/L/df cfpg'eof] .
dflg;x?n] ;]fRg ;S5g\ ls s;/L cgGt k/d]Zj/n] cfk"mnfO{ z/L/df k|:t't ug{ ;Sg'x'G5 < oxL /x:onfO{ kfjnn] a'‰g ;s] .

4.36

æk/d]Zj/ z/L/df k|s6 x'g'eof] ;+;f/n] o; s'/fnfO{ ljZjf; u¥of] / dlxdfdf :jLsf/ u/] . -! ltdf]yL #M!^_.

of] /x:osf] af/]df s;/L dnfO{ hfgsf/L u/fpg'eof] eGg] ljifodf -h;} d}n] cufl8 g} n]lv;s]sf] 5' h;åf/f ha tkfO{+ k9\g'x'G5 v|Li6df ePsf] /x:osf] 1fg tkfO{+n] yfxf ug'{x'g]5_ h'g c? ;dox?df k|s6 u/fOPsf] lyPg t/ k/d]Zj/n] cudjQmf / k|]l/tx?åf/f k|sfz kfb}{ cfO/fVg'ePsf] lyof] .

4.37

ca of] s;}b]lv 5'kfOPsf] 5}g .

k/d]Zj/ ca /x:osf] ljifo xf]Og pxfFsf] rl/q ca n'sfOPsf] 5}g . pxfFsf] OR5fx? ca u'Ktdf /flvPsf 5}gg\ . o]z" z/L/df cfpg'ePsf] 5 / xfdL;Fu pxfFsf] k"0f{ dlxldt af; 5 .

4.38

ælsgls v|Li6df O{Zj/Tjsf] ;f/f kl/k"0f{tf z/L/df jf; ub{5Æ -sn:;L @M(_.

ælsgls pxfFsf] cfˆgf] ;f/f k"0f{tf v|Li6df af; u/]sf]df k/d]Zj/ k|;Gg x'g'eof]Æ -sn:;L !M!(_.

4.39

Ps k6s d}n] d]/f] ;xkf7L;Fu 5nkmnsf] qmddf Pp6f k|Zg ;f]w]sf] lyPF , æs] k/d]Zj/n] o]z" v|Li6åf/f cfk"mnfO{ k"0f{ ?kdf k|s6 ug'{eof] ls pxfFsf] dlxdfsf] s]xL efu dfq < pxfFn] dnfO{ pQ/ lbg ;Sg'ePg . To;kl5 d}n] of] s'/f dxz'; u/]F ls xfdLdWo] w]/}n] o; k|Zgsf] lglZrt pQ/ lbg ;Sb}gf}+ lsgeg] xfdLn] v|Li6sf] k|sfznfO{ k"0f{ ?kdf a'‰g ;Sb}gf}+ .

4.40

k"0f{tfdf k/d]Zj/sf] k|sfz

olb v|Li6 o]z"sf] ;+;fl/s b]xdf k/d]Zj/n] cfk"mnfO{ k"0f{tfdf k|:t't ug'{eof] eGg] s'/fnfO{ xfdLn] dxz'; gug]{ xf] eg] xfdLn] k/d]Zj/sf] rl/q / pxfFsf] cfTdfsf] af/]df a'‰g] 5}gf}+ . clg olb xfdLn] k/d]Zj/sf] ;To rl/qnfO{ a'‰b}gf}+ xfdL ;lhn};Fu cGo cflTds zlQmlt/ lg/Gt/ tflgg ;S5f}+ hf] pxfFsf] ;To rl/qnfO{ dfGb}gg\ . of] s'/f yfxf kfpg v|Li6 o]z"df k|s6 ul/Psf] k/d]Zj/sf] k"0f{tfnfO{ a'‰g}kg]{ x'G5 .

4.41

jrg b]xwf/L eO{ xfdLaLr k"0f{ eO{ af; u¥of] . xfdLn] pxfFsf] dlxdf b]Vof}+ . h'g dlxdf lktfaf6 cfpg'ePsf] PSnf] k'qsf] dlxdf . o"xGgf !M!$

4.42

æk/d]Zj/nfO{ s;}n] slxNo} b]v]sf] 5}g . lktfsf] ;fydf x'g'x'g] Ps dfq k'qn] pxfFnfO{ k|s6 ug'{ePsf] 5Æ -o"xGgff !M!*_.

4.43

…dlxdfÚ zAbsf] cy{ s;}sf] ;To :j?k k|sfz kfg'{ xf] . :juL{o lktfsf] z/L/;Fu ;DalGwt ;a} utn cjwf/0ffnfO{ gi6 kfg{ o]z" cfpg'eof] . k/d]Zj/sf] af/]df olb xfdLdf s'g} unt a'emfO{ of ljrf/ 5 eg] ltgLx? r'gf}tLk"0f{ x'G5g\ ha xfdL c;n b[li6sf]0fn] o]z"df x]5f}{+ .

4.44

o]z"n] klg pxfFsf] lktfnfO{ k|s6 ul/ dlxdf lbg'eof] . afOandf k|of]u ePsf gfdx?n] …gfdÚ dfq geO{ 7"nf] cy{ sf] k|ltlglwTj ub{5 . gfdn] k"0f{ ?kdf cfr/0f hf] afOansf JolQmx?df b]lvPsf 5g\ . pgLx?sf] gfd;Fu ;DalGwt x/]s s'/fnfO{ o;n] k|ltlglwTj u/]sf] 5 .

4.45

…o]z" gfd Ps 6fO6n dfq xf] t/ o;sf] cy{ rflxF …k/d]Zj/n] arfpg'x'G5Ú cyjf k/d]Zj/ d'lQm x'g'x'G5 . pxfFsf] gfdnfO{ a'‰g'sf] cy{ pxfFsf] :jefjnfO{ a'‰g' xf] . o;df c? cem a9L 5 . pxfF cfk"mnfO{ k|:t't ug{ dfq cfpg'ePg pxfF cfˆgf] lktfnfO{ k|:t't ug{ cfpg'eof] . lktfsf] gfd;Fu ;DalGwt x/]s s'/fnfO{ k|s6 ug{ o]z" cfpg'eof] . pxfFn] ;+;f/df ;]jf u/]/ Tof] s'/f b]vfpg'eof] . pxfF k"0f{tfdf æo]z" k/d]Zj/ d'lQm x'g'x'G5 .

4.46

d}n] ltd|f] gfd k|s6 u/]sf]5 5' o"xGgf !&M^
h'g sfd d ub{5' Tof] lktfsf] gfpFdf u5'{ o"xGgf !)M@^
k|:t't ul/Psf] k/d]Zj/sf] :j?k

lxa|" Ps cWofon] o]z" k/d]Zj/sf] :j?k x'g'x'G5 egL atfpFb5 . lxa|" !M#

æpxfF g} k/d]Zj/sf] dlxdfsf] k|ltlaDa / k/d]Zj/s} :jefjsf] jf:tljs k|lt?k x'g'x'G5, / ;Dk"0f{ ljZjnfO{ cfˆgf] zlQmsf] jrgn] ;DefNg'x'G5 . kfksf] z'l4 ug'{ePkl5 dlxldt k/d]Zj/sf] bflxg] afx'nLkl§ pRr :yfgdf pxfF lj/fhdfg x'g'eof]Æ -lxa|" !M#_.

4.47

…;f/Ú zAb w]/} /fd|f] zAb xf] . lsgls o]z"n] k/d]Zj/sf] :jefjnfO{ d'Vo s]Gb| ljGb' agfPsf 5g\ . s'g} klg ;+;f/df 7]6 eGg] s'/f s]xL 5}g . pxfF g} k/d]Zj/sf] ;f/ oflgsL d"n x'g'x'G5 .

ca, d}n] eg]sf] s'/fdf eGg'kg]{ s'/f oxL xf] ls cflTdsL k|s6Ls/0fnfO{ ;Totf;Fu t'ngf ug{ xfdLn] ;To Ps JolQm xf] egL a'‰g' kb{5 .

4.48

c;n hu

l5d]sL zx/sf Ps hgf ;]jsn] o; ljifodf 5nkmn ug{sf] nflu dnfO{ skmL bf]sfglt/ nfg'eof] . pxfFn] dnfO{ of] s'/fdf ljZjf; lbnfpg] sf]lz; ug'{eof] ls k/d]Zj/n] tL s'/fx? ug'{eof] h'g afOandf k]mnf kb}{g .

k/d]Zj/ /x:odoL / xfd|f] ;dem zlQmeGbf dxfg\ x'g'x'G5 eGg] s'/f bzf{pg ;Totfsf] s'g] 9'Ëf] . o]z"sf] k|sfznfO{ x]g{sf] ;§f pxfFn] kl/l:ylt k/Dk/f / cg'ejx?nfO{ cufl8 ;fg'{eof] .

4.49

d}n] o]z", k/d]Zj/sf] :j?ksf] OR5fsf] k|:t'tstf{ x'g'x'G5 eGg] s'/f pxfFnfO{ k'g{ljrf/ ug{ nufPF .
jf:tjdf o]z" dfq ;Totfsf] cfwf/ x'g'x'G5 eGg] s'/f a'emf];\ eGg] ljrf/ d}n]
u/]F .
;a} v|Lli6ogx?n] ;To v|Li6df dfq kfOG5 eGg] sf/0f yfxf kfpg'kb{5 . tfls k/d]Zj/n] cfk"mnfO{ k'qåf/f k"0f{ ?kdf k|s6 ug'{eof] eGg] s'/f yfxf xf];\ . of] ;TotfnfO{ ;'Gb/ agfP/ JofVof u/]sf]df 6]8nfO{ wGojfb lbg rfxG5' .

4.50

lsg tkfO{+n] Pp6} k'qnfO{ klg k7fpg'eof] .

k/d]Zj/ ;a} ;[li6x?eGbf zlQmzfnL x'g'x'G5 pxfFn] r'g]sf] s'g} klg tl/sfaf6 pxfFn] cfˆgf] OR5f k"/f ug{ ;Sg'x'G5 .

olb k/d]Zj/n] l;g} kj{tdf r9]/ dflg;nfO{ arfpg] lg0f{o ug'{ePsf] eP Tof] ug{ ;Sg'x'GYof] . s] k/d]Zj/sf] zlQmeGbf dfly s'g} s'/f 5 < dflg;nfO{ kfkaf6 5'6fpg z}tfgn] /fh u/]sf] 7fpFdf lsg pxfFn] cfˆg} Psnf}6] k'qnfO{ k7fpg'eof] < lsg c?nfO{ k7fpg'ePg <

4.51

of] ljifonfO{ cln lj:t[t ?kdf ljrf/ ubf{ d of] lgisif{df k'u]F ls of] s'/f a'‰gsf] nflu Pp6f dfq sf/0f 5 . pxfF d]/} lglDt eg'{ePsf] xf] t < of] ;'Gbfv]/L cln 3d08L nfu] tfklg ;To xf] . tkfO{+ b]Vg ;Sg'x'G5 ls olb d d]/f] kfkdf g} d/]F / Gofosf] lbgdf d pxfFsf] cufl8 v8f u/fOPF eg] d Ps 3fOt] ;'Fu'/ e}+m 56kl6g] 5' . of] cj:yfdf d}n] k/d]Zj/nfO{ eGg ;S5' ls slt cGofoL tkfO{+ . d o;f] elg/x]sf] x'G5  ls tkfO{+ cfˆgf] l;+xf;gdf tkfO{+sf] cf1f dfGg]x?;Fu a:g'xf];\ tkfO{+n] slxNo} s]xL ug'{ kb}{g kl/jf/nfO{ ;xfotf ug'{ kb}{g ;w}+ l:y/ /lx/xg] zlQm tkfO{+;Fu 5 .

k/d]Zj/ tkfO{+;Fu lan ltg'{kg]{ emGem6 slxNo} klg ePg . cfˆgf] kl/jf/sf] nflu vfgkfg / nQfsk8f slxNo} lslglbg'k/]g, 3/ef8f, / k9fpg] z'Ns ltg'{k/]g, tkfO{+nfO{ slxNo} yfxf ePg ls ysfg, lg/fzkg / lj;Grf] eGg] s'/f s] xf] < tkfO{+;Fu zlQm 5, olb dnfO{ bGsL/x]sf] cfuf]df kmfNg] xf] eg] d t s] eGg ;Sb5' /, s'/f olt xf] ls tkfO{+ slt;Dd cGofoL x'g'x'G5 eGg] s'/f yfxf x'G5 . d}n] au}+rfdf ;k{ / kl/Iffdf klg ?v 5f]l8gF of] ;a tkfO{+n] ug'{eof] . xfdLn] oL ;a} vfn] jfbljjfb ug{ ;S5f}+ t/ tkfO{+ s] eGg'x'G5, olt dfq} <

xfdLnfO{ s'g} jxfgf 5}g lsg eg] k/d]Zj/n] cfˆg} k'q k7fOlbg'eof] . ca xfdLn] s] eGg ;S5f}+, oxL sf/0fn] ca ;a} Gofo ug]]{ lhDdf ca o]z"nfO{ lbOPsf] 5 . -o"xGgf %M@@_

ælsgls lktfn] s;}sf] Gofo ug'{x'Gg, t/ ;a} Gofo ug]{ sfd k'qnfO{ lbg'ePsf] 5Æ -o"xGgf %M@@_.

4.52

olb o]z" c;kmn ePsf] eP s] x'GYof] <

w]/} s'/f, ;DejtM o]z" slxNo} xfd|f] dg dl:tisdf slxNo} k|j]z ug'{x'Gy]g . o]z" l;4 x'g'x'G5 . s;/L pxfF c;kmn x'g;Sg'x'G5 . s] pxfF k/d]Zj/ xf]Og / < xfdLnfO{ yfxf 5 ls pxfF c;kmn x'g'ePg t/ xfdL;Fu h:t} c;kmn x'g] zlQm pxfFdf lyof] . xfdL pxfFsf] alnbfgnfO{ slxNo} cg'e"t ug{ t'ngf ug{ ;Sb}gf}+ . Pp6f s'/f o]z";Fu klg kfk ug{ zlQm lyof] xfdLn] eGbf z}tfgn] oL s'/fnfO{ k|i6 ?kdf hfGYof] . lsgls pm :ju{df Ps cu'jfsf] e"ldsf lgefO;s]sf] Ps JolQm xf] . OlhlsPn @*M!–!!

4.53

dnfO{ :ki6 kfg{ lbg'xf];\ tfls o;nfO{ s;}n] unt ?kdf ga'emf];\ ls ha o]z" b]xdf cfpg d~h'/ x'g'eof] pxfFn] cfk"mnfO{ ;Lldtfdf /fVg'eof] . cfk"mnfO{ cg]s rf]6x?eP/ hfg] t'Nofpg'eof] pxfFn] xfdLnfO{ k5\ofpgsf] nflu eGg'eof] .
olb pxfF zlQmzfnL dfq} xf] eg] of] s;/L eGg'eof] < olb pxfFåf/f kfk c;Dej lyof] eg] pxfFn] kfknfO{ lhTg'eof] eg]/ s;/L eGg;SYof] < olb pxfF xfdLh:t} gePsf] eP xfd|f] dxf k"hfxf/Lsf] ?kdf cfk"mnfO{ s;/L k|:t't ug{ ;Sg'x'GYof] lxa|" %M! . dxfk"hfxf/L x'gsf] lglDt k|ltlglwsf] ?kdf r'lgg'eof] . xf?g O;|fPnLx?sf k"hfxf/L lyP, pgL c;kmn x'g ;Sy], / c;kmn eP klg, o]z" klg c;kmn x'g;Sg'x'GYof] t/ pxfFn] slxNo} kfk ug'{ePg .

æk|To]s k|wfg k"hfxf/L dflg;x?dWo]af6 5flgG5, / dflg;x?sf] kIfdf kfksf] lgldt k/d]Zj/df e]6L / alnbfgx? r9fpg lgo'Qm ul/G5Æ -lxa|" %M!_.

4.54

Ps hgf :j:Yo dflg; / nË8f] dflg;nfO{ bf}8 k|ltof]lutfdf Ps} ;fy k|ltof]uL agfpg plrt x'G5 / sbflk x'Fb}g, t/ olb Pp6f v'§f afFw]/ b'j} nË8f] eO{ bf}8df efu lnP eg] ;'xfpg ;S5Ù o]z" ha /ut / z/L/df cfpg'eof] pxfFn] p:t} cj:yf kf/ ug'{eof] h'g ;fwf/0f dflg;n] kf/ ub{5 . pxfFn] s'g} ljz]if ;'ljwf lng'ePsf] lyPg, s;/L < pxfFn] cfk"mn] cfk"mnfO{ ;Lldlt /fVg'eof] . cfˆgf] nflu tkfO{+n] h] lxa|" @ cWofosf] !^ b]lv !* ;Dd k9\g'xf];\ . c;kmn x'g] ;Defjgf lagf s;/L k/LIffdf kg{ ;S5 <
pxfFn] c? s;}nfO{ dg k/fpg'eof], hf];Fu s]xL cg'ej / cg'e"lt lyof] .

ælsgls ;fFRr} g} pxfFn] :ju{b"tx?sf] xf]Og, t/ ca|fxfdsf ;Gtfgsf] jf:tf ug'{x'G5 . o;}sf/0f x/]s s'/fdf pxfF cfˆg} efOx?h:t} agfOg'k¥of], / dflg;x?sf kfksf] k|folZrt ug{nfO{ k/d]Zj/sf] ;]jfdf pxfF s[kfn' / ljZj:t k|wfg k"hfxf/L aGg'eof] . lsgls pxfF cfk}mn] si6 ef]Ug'eof] / k/LlIft x'g'eof], o;}n] k/LIffdf kg]{x?nfO{ pxfFn] ;xfotf ug{ ;Sg'x'G5Æ -lxa|" @M!^–!*_.

æcfsfz l5rf]n]/ hfg'ePsf k/d]Zj/sf k'q o]z" xfd|f dxfg\ k|wfg k"hfxf/L x'g'ePsf] x'gfn] xfdLn] kSsf;Fu :jLsf/ u/]sf] of] ljZjf; yfld/fvf}+ . lsgls xfd|f k|wfg k"hfxf/L xfd|f] b'a{ntfdf xfdL;Fu ;xfg'e"lt b]vfpg g;Sg] x'g'x'Gg . t/ xfdLh:tf] pxfF ;a} s'/fdf k/LlIft x'g'eof], / klg kfk/lxt x'g'x'GYof] . o;sf/0f ;fx;;Fu cg'u|xsf] l;+xf;g ghLs hfcf}+, / vfFrf]sf] ;dodf ;xfotf kfpgnfO{ s[kf / cg'u|x k|fKt ug{ ;sf}+Æ -lxa|" $M!$–!^_.

4.55

xfdL h:t} o]z"sf] hLjgdf w]/} kl/Iffx? cfP . oL s'/fx? pxfFdf cfˆg}} cg'ofoLx?af6 klg cfP . hxfF uP klg oL s'/fx?n] pxfFnfO{ 5f]8]/ Psl5gsf] nflu xfdL pxfFsf] clGtd kl/Iffsf] af/]df s'/f u/f}+ . o]z"n] cfk"mdfly h'g s'/f x'g uO/x]sf] lyof] Tof] hfg]/ cfˆgf glhssf # r]nfx?nfO{ 5'§} Jojxf/ ug'{eof] . cfˆgf] ldzg k"/f ug{sf] nflu zlQm k|fKt ug{ pxfF ToxfF hfg'eof] .
clg To;kl5 cfˆgf] zq'sf] crDdsf] cfqmd0fsf] z'?jftdf kg'{eof] .
y'sfO{ lk6fO, s'6fO{ / c;xlgo si6 ;xg'kb{5 eg]/ hfGbf hfGb} klg pxfFn] cfk"mnfO{ 7"nf] k/LIffsf] ;fdgf ul//x]sf] kfpg'eof] .
of] ;a} s] lyof] s]] o;nfO{ gfd dfq lbg] ;fx; klg xfdLdf cfpFb}g <

4.56

olb d tkfO{+sf] cufl8 o;f] eGb} cfPF ls æd w]/} b'MvL 5' d dg{ rfxG5'Æ tkfO{+ s] eGg'x'G5 < dnfO{ o;f] ug{ kl/Iffdf kfl/Fb} 5, Tolta]nf tkfO{+n] dnfO{ s:tf] k|sf/sf] jf:tf ug'{x'G5 < olb tkfO{+ cfTdxTofsf] af/]df ;f]Rb} x'g'x'G5 eg] tkfO{+ 7Ls} x'g'x'G5 . t/ olb s;}sf] sf/0f dg{ rfxFb} x'g'x'G5 eg] kl/Iff 6n]/ ghfpGh]n;Dd tkfO{+ s:tf] k|sf/sf] ;xof]u ug{ ;Sg'x'G5 < d cfk"mn] cfk"mnfO{ dg kg]{ ;fyLx?sf] 3]/fdf /fVy]F, d}n] pgLx?nfO{ gh/ nufO/fVg cg'/f]w uy]{+, tkfO{+ klg To;} ug{'x'GYof] xf]nf xf]Og < o]z" klg o;/L g} kl/Iffdf kg'{ePsf] xf]Og / < ha pxfFn] cfˆgf glhs}sf # ;fyLx?nfO{ eGg'eof] æd]/f] k|f0f b'Mvdf 5, dnfO{ x]/ dQL @^M#*_< z}tfgn] y'dfnfO{ alnbfgsf] q"m;df k'Ug'eGbf cufl8 g} aGb ug{ sf]lz; u¥of] .

4.57

csf]{ s'/f xfdL o]z"nfO{ lknft;sf] cufl8 plePsf] kfpF5f}+, lknft; hf];Fu o]z"nfO{ :jtGq ug]{ clwsf/ lyof] oxfF o:tf] s'/f b]vf k5{ ls lknft;nfO{ k"hfxf/Lx?sf] OR5f cg';f/ ug{ dg k/]sf] 5}g, oflgsL pxfFn] o]z"nfO{ dfg]{ rfxgf ug'{ePsf] 5}g dQL @&M@#_ . oxfF s] eO/x]sf] 5 s] of] s'/fnfO{ tkfO{+n] a'‰b} x'g'x'G5 < k/d]Zj/n] cfˆgf] Psdfq k'qnfO{ ;+;f/sf] lglDt lgbf]{if y'df x'gsf] nflu k7fpg'ePsf] 5 . olb pxfFn] of] ldzg k"/f ug{'x'Gy]g eg] ;+;f/ ;w}+sf] nflu x/fpFbYof] . z}tfgn] o]z"nfO{ r§fg / s8f 7fpFsf] aLrdf /fv]sf] 5 . o:tf] nfU5 ls pxfF s'g} klg xfntdf ToxfFaf6 efUg ;Sg'x'Gg . olb lknft;nfO{ oL ;a} s'/f atfP/ p;n] o]z"nfO{ 5f]l8 lbPsf] eP lgbf]{if aln x'Gy]g .
olb pxfFn] lknft;nfO{ bf]ifL x'F egL :jLsf/ u/]sf eP of] e"m6 x'GYof] . pxfF kfkL ulgg'x'GYof] / o;n] pxfFnfO{ alnbfgsf] lglDt cof]Uo agfpFbYof] . pxfFn] s] ug'{eof] < oz}of cudjQmfn] h:tf] eg]sf lyP To:t}u/L pg sqg nfu]sf] e]8f pg sqg]sf] cufl8 h;/L r'k al;/xG5 To;/L g} pxfFn] cfˆgf] d'v vf]Ng'ePg . oz}of %#M^ .

lknft;n] ha o]z"nfO{ pxfFsf lj/f]wLx?n] rfx]sf] ;hfosf] af/]df atfP ta pgn] cfˆgf] arfpsf] nflu s]xL af]n]gg\ . of] csNkgLo kl/Iffsf] ;fdgf ub}{ ubf{ pxfFn] s]xL eGg'ePg . bf]>f] k6s z}tfgn] y'dfnfO{ q"m;df hfg'eGbf cufl8 g} vQd ug{ vf]Hof] t/ k]ml/ c;kmn eof] .

4.58

v|Li6sf] ldzg gfz u/L dflg;nfO{ arfpg z}tfgn] oL b'O{ of]hgfdWo] Ps of]hgf ;kmn kfg'{kYof]{ . o]z" k/d]Zj/df /x]/ q"m;sf] clGtd cj:yf ;Dd kfk/lxt x'g'eof] . olb pxfFn] cfˆgf] alnbfg g/f]Sg'ePsf] eP kfknfO{ u|x0f ug{df pxfFnfO{ kl/Iff ug]{x? ;kmn x'g] lyP / pxfFsf] alnbfg cy{xLg x'g] lyP . d'lQmsf] of]hgf rflxF gfz x'g'kb{Yof] . lsgls /utsf] r'xfj6 lagf -lgbf]{ifLsf] /utlagf_ sxLF klg kfk Ifdf 5}g -lxa|" (M@@Ù dQL @^M@*_ . o]z"n] olb kfk u/]sf] eP pxfF s;/L k/d]Zj/sf] lgbf]{if -bful/xt_ y'df x'g ;Sg'x'G5 <

4.59

o]z"n] q"m; kfpg' g} kYof]{ / pxfF kfk/lxt ePs} x'g'kYof]{ . d ljZjf; ub{5' ls olb tL s'/fx?sf] vfFrf] g} lyof] eg] o]z"n] Tof] q"m;nfO{ Ps Ps OGr u/]/ unuyfsf] kxf8;Dd tfGg'kYof]{ / To;sf] nflu cfˆg} xftx?n] vf8n vGg'kYof]{ . oL s'/fsf] cfjZostf g} lyof] eg] pxfF cfk}m v8f x'g'kYof]{ / cfk}m q"m;df r9\g'kYof]{ . pxfFsf] ldzg s] lyof] ;f] pxfFnfO{ yfxf lyof] . / ldzg k"/f ug{ pxfFnfO{ zlQm lbOPsf] lyof] .

4.60

Ps lg/fzfsf] 38Ldf z}tfgn] clGtd k|of; u/L 7"nf] eL8sf] cfjfh k|of]u u/]/ kl/Iff u¥of] / To:t} kl/Iff o]z"nfO{ ul/of] h;sf/0f z}tfgsf] 3d08 ktg eof] . æolb tkfO{+ k/d]Zj/sf] k'q x'g''x'G5 eg] q"m;af6 cf]ln{ cfpg'xf];\Æ -dQL @&M$)_. o]z"sf] hjfkm lktf / zq' b'j}nfO{ ;d]6\g] u/L eGg'eof] æca l;l4of]Æ -o"xGgf !(M#)_ . pxfFsf] kfk/lxt alnbfg :jLsfo{ eof] / ca d'lQmsf] sfd k"0f{ eof] . ca xfdLnfO{ crDd nfUg ;S5 kl/0ffd olb xfdL ;a}sf] pNn‹g u/]sf] kfksf Ifdf ePsf] 5 h'g ;Totfsf] kl/0ffd rflxF hf]lvddf lyof] .

4.61

k/d]Zj/ s'g} Ps cfb/ ug]{ JolQm xf]Og -k|]l/t !)M#$_, of] eGgfn], pxfFn] cfˆgf] ;Gtfg, k|s[lt, lnOPsf], dflyaf6sf] -:ju{b"t_ aLr kIfkftsf] Jojxf/ b]vfpg'x'Gg, g t pxfF kl/jt{g g} x'G5 -dnfsL #M^, lxa|" !#M*_ eGg] a'lemG5 . pxfF wfld{s Gofostf{ x'g'x'G5 -@ ltdf]yL $M*_, To;}n] pxfFsf] Gofostf{ x'g'x'G5 -@ ltdf]yL $M*_, To;}n] pxfFsf] Gofo e]befj/lxt x'G5 . wfld{s Gofostf{n] cfˆgf] ;fFrf] 5f]/f / wd{k'q sxlnPsf] b'j} 5f]/fnfO{ Pp6} ck/fwsf] bf]ifdf d[To' b08 lbg ;Sg'x'GYof] . s] k/d]Zj/n] z}tfgnfO{ :ju{af6 aflx/ ˆofFSg'eof] / cfuf]sf] uGwsdf gi6 ug'{eof] . ePg . z}tfgn] kfk} u/] klg p;nfO{ :jtGq kfg{ o]z"nfO{ cg'dlt lbg'eof] < xf]Og Û

æta kq';n] af]Ng yfn], æ;fFRrL g} d b]Vb5', ls k/d]Zj/n] kIfkft ug'{x'GgÆ -k|]l/t !)M#$_.

æo;}n] d Gofo ug{nfO{  ltdLx?sf] ghLs cfpg]5' . 6'gfd'gf ug]{x?, Jolerf/x? / e"m6f] ujfxL aSg]x?sf lj?4df, dhb"/x?nfO{ Hofnfdf 7Ug]x?, ljwjf / 6'x'/f–6'x'/Lx?dfly cTofrf/ ug]{x?, ljb]zLnfO{ Gofo gul/lbg]x? / d]/f] 8/ gdfGg]x?, oL ;a}sf lj?4df d em§} ujfxL lbg]5',Æ ;j{zlQmdfg\ k/dk|e' eGg'x'G5Æ -dnfsL #M%_.

æo]z" v|Li6 lxhf], cfh / ;bf;j{bf Ps ;dfg x'g'x'G5Æ -lxa|" !#M*_.

æca pk|fGt d]/f] lglDt wfld{stfsf] d's'6 /flvPsf] 5, hf] wfld{stfsf GofowLz k|e'n] To; lbg dnfO{ lbg'x'g]5, / dnfO{ dfq xf]Og, t/ pxfFsf] k'g/fudg lk|o dfGg]x? ;a}nfO{ lbg'x'g]5Æ -@ ltdf]yL $M*_.

4.62

s] v|Li6åf/f kfk ul/g ;Dej lyof] < cF, pxfFn] kfk ug'{ ePg t/ olb ug'{ePsf] eP xfdLnfO{ s] x'GYof] < / pxfFnfO{ s] x'GYof] < olb Ps k6s dfq} eP klg o]z" kl/Iffdf lug'{ePsf] eP ljb|f]xsf] bf]if pxfFdf kb}{g / < s] ;a} kfkx? ljb|f]xaf6 hGd]sf xf]Ogg\ / < s] eof] ;+Dej lyof] ls xfd|f] :juL{o lktfn] olt w]/} k|]d ug{'eof] tfls pxfFsf] OR5f xfdLdf pxfFsf] k'qåf/f pxfF;Fu cgGt hLjgsf] ;DaGwdf hf]lvd p7fpF < s] of] ;Dej lyof] ls v|Li6n] lktfnfO{ olt w]/} k|]d ug{ tfls{s lktfsf] OR5fsf] nflu pxfFn] cfˆgf] cgGt hLjgnfO{ Jeogardy df /fVg < s] k/d]Zj/;Fu xfd|f] k'gld{ngsf] nflu pxfFn] cgGt ;hfo / lktf;Fusf] ;DaGwnfO{ g} hf]lvddf /fVg'eof] . o]z"n] cfˆgf] hLjg xfd|f] lglDt lbg'eof], h'g s'/fn] of] pkxf/nfO{ ljz]if agfpg] dfq xf]Og, pxfF kfk/lxt x'g'x'GYof] / cl4tLo klg x'g'x'GYof] eGg] s'/f b]vfpF5 . dflg;hfltdf z'? b]lv g} cfk"mn] dg k/fPsf] dflg;k|lt Hofg lbg tof/ ePsf 5g\ s] of] klg crDd xf]Og / < v|Li6 o]z"sf] d[To'n] dfq xfd|f] Wofg lvRg] xf]Og t/ pxfFsf] hLjgn] xfdLnfO{ k|efj kf/]sf] x'g'kb{5 . o]z"sf] hLjgdf sxLF st} Pp6f dfq} kfk e]l6Psf] eP /fd|f] x'g] lyPg .

xfdLn] k/d]Zj/ lktf, pxfFsf] dflg; arfpg] of]hgf, v|Li6sf] hLjg, pxfFsf] zlfQm oL s'/fx? ga'lemsg s;/L q"m;df ePsf] pxfFsf] d[To'nfO{ k|z+;f ug{ ;Sb5f}+ < pxfFn] xfdLnfO{ s/ gu/] klg xfdLdWo] s;}n] pxfFsf] lglDt zlxb x'g cg'dlt kfPsf 5f}+ . h;/L eP klg pxfFn] xfdLnfO{ pxfFsf] lglDt lhPsf] rfxg'x'G5 . k/d]Zj/n] xfdLnfO{ lk|o xf]  d/]sf] k|f0fsf] alnbfg b]p eg]/ eGg'ePsf] 5}g t/ hLljt alnbfg eGg'ePsf] 5 /f]dL !@M!–@ v|Li6n] pxfFsf] j}lbs hLjgnfO{ dfq hf]lvddf /fVg'ePsf] xf]Og xfdLnfO{ cgGt hLjg k|bfg ug{ pxfFn] cfˆgf] cgGt hLjgnfO{ g} hf]lvddf /fVg'eof], olb pxfF o; sfddf c;kmn x'g'ePsf] eP pxfFn] lktfnfO{ clg xfdLnfO{ ;w}+sf] nflu u'dfpg'x'GYof] .

4.63

of] dl/hfg] rf]nfdf ca xfdL;Fu hlt ;do afFsL 5, pxfFn] xfdLnfO{ pxfFsf] ;]jfdf nfu]sf] rfxg'x'G5 . ca xfdL v|Li6sf] pkxf/nfO{ k"0f{ gfkdf kfpF5f}+ . pxfFsf] k|z+;f;lxt cfpg'xf];\ xfdL cfˆgf] lz/ e'msfO{ alKt:df lbg] o"xGgfn] æx]/ k/d]Zj/sf y'dfÆ eg]e}+m pxfFsf] gfpFdf 3f]if0ff u/f}+ .

,