Broken Toys 6'lqmPsf] v]nf}gf

gf]6 M n]vsn] eGg vf]h]sf] s'/fx? /fd|/L a'em\g s[kof n]vssf] ;Gb]z k9\g'xf];\ .

[7.1]

jfbljjfb dflg;n] k"j{ uGtJo jf k"j{ lglZrt ljifodf jfbljjfb ul/Pkl5 OZj/ zf:q;DaGwL wd{zf:qsf] cWoog ug{ yfn] . s'g} s'/fdf hj ljZjf; wd{ddf ablnof] ha ;]jsfoL k/d]Zj/sf] af]nfj6af6 s'g} lglZrt sfd sfo{df kl/jt{g eof], tj s;}n] k/d]Zj/sf] k"j{ 1fg / kfkdf plrt ;+utzlQmdf k|Zg u¥of] . Ps ;dodf o; k|Zgn] b'ljwf, cGof}ntf ;[hgf u/]sf lyP h'g s'/fn] clxn];Dd v|Li6Log /fHonfO{ ljefhg ug]{ sfddf lg/Gt/tf lb+b} cfPsf] 5 . cGof}ntfsf] b'O{j6f ;Ldx? 5g\ / o;sf] k5fl8 b'O{j6f 7"nf] wfld{s lzlj/x? 5g\ . o; k"j{ uGtJosf] ljifodf klg ul0ftLo ;dLs/0f h:t} b'O{j6f af6fx? 5g\ .

[7.2]

klxnf] af6f]

klxnf] Ps kf6fdf jfbljjfbLo k|Zgx?sf ;+Vof 5g\ / o;n] k/d]Zj/sf] df}lns u'0fsf] 9fFrfdf Nofpg] sf]zLif ub{5 h'g k/d]Zj/sf] wfld{stf / kljqtfsf] dflg;sf] ljrf/n] @ efudf ljeflht 5g\ . o:tf vfn] :s'n] ljrf/n] of] eGb5 ls k/d]Zj/n] ;ayf]s hfGg' x'G5 / pxfF zlQmzfnL x'g'x'G5 . olb k/d]Zj/ cGt/ofdL / ;j{zlQmdfg x'g'x'G5 eg] k/d]Zj/n] z'?b]lv n'l;kmf/ -:ju{b"t_ sf] ktgb]lv g} cfkm\gf] OR5f k"/f ug'{kg]{ ePsf] x'G5 / pxfF cfkm}n] v;]sf c? :ju{b"tx?nfO{ klg ufpg ahfpg xf]l;of/ ckgfpg' kg]{ x'G5 .

[7.3]

o;sf] cy{ k/d]Zj/n] z'?d} :ju{b"tx?fnO{ 9fSg / k"j{ of]hgf agfP/ 30d8L / Oiof{n' aGg'sf] nflu n'l;km/ -z}tfg_ nfO{ agfpg'eof] . k/d]Zj/n] n'l;km/sf] nflu of] of]hgf agfpg'eof] . t];|f] bhf{sf] :ju{b't -n'l;km/_ cfP/ pxfFsf] lj?4df sfd u5{ / pgnfO{ pxfFn] kmflnlbg] sf]lzif ug'{x'G5 . pxfFn] n'lkmkm/ / pgsf kl5 nfUg]x? ;a}nfO{ gfz ug]{ of]hgf agfpg'eof] hf]x? k"j{ uGtJodf lyP . o:tf]vfnsf] aflËPsf] ts{df d k|s6 x'g'k/\of] . ls olb xfdLn] k/d]Zj/sf] of]hgf k"/f u5f}{, pxfFsf] OR5f xfd|f] hLjgdf k'/f u/fpF5f}+ eg] b]lv xfdLn] g/ssf] cfuf]sf] s'08df kmflng] Ogfd kfpg ;S5f}+ . lsgeg] clxn] xfdLn] a'em\g] h:t} u/L xfdL cg'u|xsf] nflu k"j{ lgZrotfdf lyof}+, hxfF Gofo 5}g .

[7.4]

Pp6f v]nf}gf h:tf] ePtf klg pxfFn] dflg;nfO{ pxfFnfO{ v';L kfg{sf] lglDt agfpg' eof] . o;af6 of] l;sfpF5 ls k/d]Zj/n] cfkm\gf] :jfy{sf] nflu df geP/ dfgjLo cfjZostfsf] dx;'; eP/ dflg;nfO{ agfpg'eof] . -/f]dL #M@#, ! o'xGg !M!)_ dflg; s;/L kfkL eP < p k/LIffdf k/\of] . p;nfO{ s;n] k/LIff u/\of] < au}+rfdf ;k{ s;n] /fVg] < k/d]Zj/n] . s;n] ;k{nfO{ agfpg'eof] / o;nfO{ b'i6 / z}tfg eGg'eof] < k/d]Zj/n] -sn:;L !M!^_. s;n] dflg;nfO{ k/LIff ug]{ ;fx; agfof] < k/d]Zj/n] .

[7.5]

o;n] kf7nfO{ xfdLn] lg/Gt/tf lbP/ x]g]{ xf] eg] lgrf]8df of] a'em\g ;lsG5 ls k/d]Zj/n] z'?d}, ktg x'g'sf] nflu / cgGt b08sf] nflu ;fy} d'lQm / pxfFsf] /fHosf] cgGt hLjg / cfgGbsf] nflu dflg;nfO{ agfpg'eof] . olb To;f] xf] eg], o]z' v|Li6sf] qm'; / k'g?Tyfgsf] s] dxTj 5 < of] gf6sLo ?kdf k/d]Zj/n] cfkm\gf s]xL hgx?nfO{ kIfkft ug'[ePsf] 5 / ltgLx?nfO{ b'Mv lbg /f]Hg'ePsf] clg ltgLx? ;a}nfO{ hnfpg / ktg x'g ;[li6 ug'{ePsf] 5 . s] of] k/d]Zj/n] cfkm\gf] ;j{zlQmdfg kgf k|s6 ug{nfO{ xf] < s] of] ts{n] k/d]Zj/sf] argnfO{ ;fy lbG5 <

[7.6]

o; ;DaGwdf hf] xfdLn] of] :yfg hdfpg' kb{5 ls k/d]Zj/sf tfl/sfx? xfd|f tl/sf xf]Ogg\ / wfld{stfsf] xfd|f ljrf/x? xfdLn] pxfFsf lhDd]jf/Lx? ;DxfNg ;Sb}gf}+ . ltgLx?n] afOjnLo s'/fx? hf]8\g ;SYof] ls k/d]Zj/, s'dfn] hf];Fu df6f]nfO{ cfkm"n] rfx] h:tf] efF8f] agfpg] clwsf/ / zlQm x'G5 . s] ltgLx? ;xL xf] < -/f]dL (M@)–@!_ . olb Tof] ;a} ToxfF T;f] ePsf] xf] eg] xfdL o;df ;xdt x'g'kYof]{ . t/ ToxfF w]/}eGbf w]/} 5 . olb zlQm g} k/d]Zj/sf] cl:tTj eGbf 7"nf] eg] s;/L k/d]Zj/ ;j{zlQmdfg x'g ;S5 < olb zlQmsf] g} lj/f]w x'G5 eg] k/d]Zj/ slt ;j{zlQmdfg x'g ;S5 < k/d]Zj/ ;j{zlQmdfg\ x'g' x'G5 eGg] s'/fdf s'g} k|Zg 5}g . s] Tof] ;fgf] s'/f xf] < ;j} zlQm ;fdYHo{ k/d]Zj/af6} cfPsf] xf], o;df s'g} z+sf 5}g t/ h;n] pxfFnfO{ e/f];f u/\of] ltgLx?nfO{ s]xL zlQm lbg'eof] .

[7.7]

ljifo M k'j{lgZrotfsf] ljifonfO{ Pp6f 7"nf] cgf}krfl/s l;4fGtsf] ?kdf ljrf/ ug{ ;lsG5 . ca oxfF k/d]Zj/sf] argn] s] eG5 eg] klxnf] ztfAbLsf n]vsx?nfO{ kljq cfTdfn] n]Vg' kg]{ s'/f k|sfz lbgsf] nflu 5fGg' eof] h'g s'/frflxF k"j{ lgZrotfsf] /x:o klg xf] . gofF lgodsf] n]vsåf/f kljq cfTdfn] w]/} j6f cflTds /x:osf s'/fx?nfO{ k|:t't ug{ vf]h]sf 5g\ . t/ of] pgLx?sf] ljrdf 5}g . pbfx/0fsf] nflu sf]l/GyLsf] k':ts klxnf] cWofodf kfjnn] Pstfsf] af/]df / afx| cWofodf v|Li6n] bf];|f] cfudgsf] af/]df atfPsf 5g\ . t/ k"j{ lgZrotfsf] af/]df /f]dL / PkmL;Lsf] k':tsdf b'O{ b'O{ k6s pNn]v ul/Psf] 5 . t/ o;nfO{ lzIffsf] ?kdf k|:t't ul/Psf] 5}g . w]/}h;f] ljjflbt k':ts gf} cWofo gf} b]lv rf}lj;;Dd x]g]{ xf] eg] oL s'/fx? klxn] g} pNn]v ePsf] kfpF5f}+ tyflk of] cufl8 g} k|:t't ul/Psf s'/fx?;Fu ;Lldt 5}g .

[7.8]

cgGt hLjgsf] lgZrotfsf] l;4fGtsf] af/]df klxn] pNn]lvt ul/Psf] s'/fnfO{ ;'/lIft /fVg / o;;Fu ;DalGwt u/fpg w]/}n] sf]lzif u/]sf 5g\ . pgLx?n] of] bfjL u5{g\ ls d'lQm kfpg]x? ;+;f/ z'? x'g'eGbf cufl8 g} r'lgPsf x'g\ -Plkm;L !M$_ . clg s'g} klg cj:yfdf pgLx?n] of] s'/f l;sfpF5g\ ls Psk6s d'lQm kfO;s]kl5 ;w}+sf] nflu d'lQm kfpF5g\ .

[7.9]

o; ljifodf ulxl/P/ ;f]Rg] xf] eg] / ljjfb ug]{ xf] eg] xfdLn] vf]nf h:t} nfdf] ljjfbnfO{ kQf nufpFb5f}+ . Psk6s xfdLn] xfd|f] af6f] agfof}+ eg] xfdL xfdLn] /f]Hg'kg]{ b'O{ j6f dWo Ps 5fGg' k5{ . k/d]Zj/;Fu ;Lldt zlQm 5, pxfF klg sdhf]/ x'g'x'G5 jf pxfF ;j{1fgL ;j{zlQmdfg / c;Lldt x'g'x'G5 eGg] dWo] Ps . olb k/d]Zj/ ;Lldt x'g'x'Gg eg] wd{zf:qsf] k|sfzdf dfgjLo :t/df pxfF em'6 / wf]s]jfh 7xl/g'x'G5 lsg < lsgls pxfF cfkm}n] kfk / kfksf] kl/0ffd lhDd]jf/L eO/x]sf] a]nf cfkm"nO{ wdL{ / kljq 3f]if0ff u/]sf] 7x5{ . of] t:jL/df k/d]Zj/ 6'lqmPsf] v]nf}gf agfpg] jfnf tyf v/fa /f]k0f ug]{ df}g ;fem]bf/ ag]sf] xf] ls h:tf] nfU5 . of] s'/fsf] k"j{ lgZrotf ug]{ xf] eg] oL s'/fn] o;f] eGg vf]h]sf] b]lvG5 ls xfd|f] l;4 clg kljq k/d]Zj/n] s]xL dflg;x? pxfFnfO{ k5\ofpg] agfpg' eof] / c? rflxF pxfFsf] lj?4df p7\g] agfpg' eof] . of] oxL ;dfKt x'Fb}g . olb of] g} v/faLsf] r/d ljGb' xf]Og eg] s]xL dflg;x?n] cfzf ljgf g} pxfFnfO{ k5\ofPsf x'g\ eGg] s'/fnfO{ xfdLn] a'em\g} kb{5 . tL cfzf ljgf k5\ofpg]x? cgGt b08sf] nflu g/s xf] cUgL s'08sf] kL8f ;xg r'lgPsf x'g\ . dlt @%M$^

[7.10]

s] of] o]z" h:t} 5 < o]z" b'?:t} k/d]Zj/ lktfsf] k|lt?k x'g'x'G5 < olb k/d]Zj/ n] g} kfk ug]{ clwsf/ lbg] xf] eg]tf o]z"n] klg kfk ug{ kg]{ xf] . olb o]z" c4]Zo k/d]Zj/sf] k|lt?k xf] eg] -sn;L !M!%_ . xfdLn] o;f] eGg'kg]{ xf] ls of] w't{tfdf pxfFsf] klg ;fem]bf/L lyof] . xfdLnfO{ of] yfxf 5 ls o]z'n] slxNo} kfk ug'{ePg t/ cfkm\gf] alnbfgåf/f pxfFn] kfksf] sfF8fnfO{ efFRg'eof] . clxn] o;nfO{ xfdLn] :yflkt u/]sf 5f}+ / ca xfdL o;}df lx8f}+ .

[7.11]

s] k/d]Zj/ hf] x'F eGg' x'G5 Tof] x'g'x'G5 < k/d]Zj/ eGg' x'G5 æpxfF dfgj x'g' x'Gg h;nfO{ em'6 af]Ng' k5{Æ uGtL @#M!( . s] xfdL pxfFnfO{ ljZjf; ug{ ;S5f}+ . s] xfdL pxfFdfly e/f];f ug{ ;S5f} < pxfFdfly e/f];f gug'{df s] kmfObf 5 < s] dflg;n] cfkm"nfO{ arfpg ;S5 < k/d]Zj/n] cfkm\gf] k|lt1fx? ;a} /fVg' ePsf] 5 < clxn];Dd pxfFn] slxNo} em'6 af]Ng'ePsf] 5}g . o:tf] cj:yfdf s] xfdL pxfFdfly z+sf ug{ ldN5 < olb xfdL z+sf u5f}{ eg] s] ;fFRr} xfdL pxfFnfO{ k|]d u5f}{ / :jLsf/ u5f}{ eGg ldNb5 < olb tkfO{n] k/d]Zj/dfly e/f];f ug{ ;Sg' x'G5 eg] s;dfly ljZjf; ug{' x'G5 <

[7.12]

bf];|f] af6f]

of] bf];|f] af6f]df klg k"j{ lgZrotfsf] bf]wf/sf] af/]df ul/Psf] ljjfbsf] 7Ls pN6f] efu 5 . k"0f{?kdf km/s wf/0ffsf] k|Zgsf] ;]6nfO{ o;n] phfu/ u/]sf] 5 . k/d]Zj/n] cfkm\gf] af/]df wd{zf:qdf 3f]if0ff u/]sf] s'/f ;To / k/d]Zj/sf] af/]df wd{ zf:qdf 3f]if0ff ul/P ljkl/t b]vfk/]sf s'g} klg s'/fx? em'6f x'g\ . olb wd{zf:qdf n]lvPsf s'g} s'/f Ps cfk;df afFem\b5g\ eg] ls t of] ;xL lsl;dn] a'em\g g;Sg'n] xf] ls t unt tl/sfn] cg'jfb ePsf] sf/0fn] xf] . ;j{k|yd xfdLn] ;To zAbsf] cy{ afOjnLo b[li6sf]0faf6 a'em\g} kb{5 . o"xGgf !&Mv kbd . o;/L pNn]v ul/Psf] 5 ls ha k/d]Zj/n] v|Li6åf/f o;/L 3f]if0ff ug'{eof] ls art ;To 5, olb k/d]Zj/sf] arg ;To xf] eg] xfdLn] ug'{kg]{ s'/f oxL xf] ls k/d]Zj/sf] argnfO{ xfdLleq k|j]z ug]{ / kljqtf / OZj/Lo :jefjnfO{ kQf nufpg] cg'dlt lbg' k5{ . pxfFsf] argn] o;/L 3f]if0ff ub{5 ls pxfF k|]d x'g'x'G5 -! o"xGgf $M*_ . pxfFn] argåf/f cfkm}nfO{ ldnfkdf Nofpg'eof] -@ sf]=%M!%_ . s'g} klg JolQm gi6 xf];\ eGg] pxfFsf] rfxgf 5}g t/ pxfF ;a}hgf kfkaf6 kmls{g'k5{ eGg] OR5f /fVg' x'G5 -@ kq'; #M(_ / pxfF xfd|f] d'lQmbftf ePsf] x'gfn] ;a}hgf d'lQmsf] cfTdfsf] 1fgdf cfpg / afFr'g\ eGg] rfxg'x'G5 -! lt= @M$_ .

[7.13]

w]/} k6s k/d]Zj/ cfkm} nfO{ ckm;f]r dfGg' k/]sf] 5 . olb o;f] xf] eg] xfdLn] of] s'/f :jLsf/ ug{'k5{ ls pxfF ;j{zlQmdfg xf]Og . pxfFnfO{ ;j{zlQmdfg x'g'sf] nflu xfdLn] s7k'tnL ´} eP/ ;]jf ug{' k5{ . k/d]Zj/sf] lglDt lg/fzhgs kl/l:ylt cfPsf] s]xL afOansf kbx? lgDg cg';f/ 5 . pTklQ # M!( df k/d]Zj/n] eGg'eof], æltdLn] o; ?vaf6 gvfg'Æ t/ cfbdn] vfOlbof] -pTklQ ^M^_ . of] 36gfn] k/d]Zj/nfO{ b'lvt t'Nofof] / dflg;df kfk :jfefj cfof] . k|:yfg #@M*–!) ;'g, oxfF x7L dflg;x? 5g\ , d]/f] s|f]w logLx?sf] lj?4df cfpg]4 / ltgLx?nfO{ d gi6 kfg{]5' t/ pxfFn] To;f] ug{' ePg . ! zfd'on *M& df k/d]Zj/ cfkm} O;|fPnLx?sf] lglDt /fhf aGg rfxfg'x'G5 t/ O;|fPnLx? eg] c? b]zx?df ´} /ut / df;'sf] zl// ePsf] /fhf g} rfxfG5g\ . æpgLx?n] dnfO{ Tofu]sf 5g\ / plgx? dfly zf;g ug{'kb{}gÆ. olb :jtGqtf 5}g eg] s;/L s;}n] k/d]Zj/nfO{ OGsf/ ug{ ;S5 < n'sf !#M#$ o]z'n] o?;n]dsf s]6fs]6Lx?nfO{ hDdf ug{'x'GYof] < h;/L Pp6f s'v'/Ln' cfˆgf] rNnfx?nfO{ kv]6fd'lg n'sfp5 t/ pgLx?n] k/d]Zj/sf] s'/f dflg;x?nfO{ atfOlbg] ;Gb]z afxsnfO{ dfg{] lyPgg\ .

[7.14]

h;/L dfly pNn]v ul/Psf] 5g\ , k/d]Zj/n] ;a] dflg;x? kZrtfk u/]/ pxfFsxfF cfPsf] rfxg' x'G5 . pxfFn] Psdfq k'q nfO{ o; ;+;f/df alnbfgsf] lglDt lbg'eof] . yf]/} dflg;x?sf] lglDt xf]Og, ;a}sf] lglDt o]z' cfpg'eof] . t/ pxfFn] of] s'/f a'´\g' x'G5 ls z}tfg of] ;+;f/sf] b]j, - @sf]=$M$ _ n] w]/} dflg;x?sf] ;d´zlQmnfO{ cGwf] t'NofO lbPsf] 5 . tfsL pgLx?n] k/d]Zj/sf] cg'u|xnfO{ b]Vg g;s'g\ . @ sf]=$M$ ltgLx?sf ljifodf egf}+ eg] lv|i6 hf] k/d]Zj/sf ?k x'g'x'G5, pxfFsf] dlxdfsf] ;';dfrf/ ltgLx?n] gb]v'g\ eg]/ o; ;+;f/sf b]jn] cljZjf;Lx?sf] ;d´nfO{ cGwf] t'NofO lbPsf] 5 .

[7.15]

;To glrgf]; eg]/ dflg;sf] ;d´zlQm aGb ug{] z}tfg xf], k/d]Zj/ xf]Og . s] k/d]Zj/n] u/]sf] s'/f jf ug{ ;Sg] s'/fsf] cfwf/df pxfFsf] zlQmsf] df´ gul/Psf] xf] / < xfdL xfd|f] ;f+;l/s lktf - afaf _ nfO{ x]g{ ;S5f}+, ls pxfFn] slt s] ug{ ;Sg'x'G5 . w]/} h;f] Pp6f ;fwf/ dflg;n] klg la/fdL ePsf] a]nfdf eGbf ;+~rf] ePsf] a]nfdf w]/} prfNg ;S5 . To;}sf/0f xfd|f] k"0f{zlQm xfdLn] u/]sf] s'/fdf xf]Og t/ xfdLm] s] ug{ ;S5f}+ eGg] s'/fsf] dfkg ul/Psf] 5 .

[7.16]

k/d]Zj/n] klg xfdLnfO{ xfd|f] :jtGqtfdf g5f]8Lsg Pp6f s7k'tnL / /f]j6{ ;/x agfpg ;Sg'x'GYof] t/ To;f] ug{'ePg, lsg < dflg;nfO{ :ktGqtf lbgsf] nflu . Tof] :jtGqtf h;n] ubf{ dflg;n] k/d]Zj/nfO{ k|]d ug{] s'/f 5fg'g\ . dflg;sf] nflu k/d]Zj/nfO{ k|]d ug{] ;fdfYo{ s'g} s7k'tnL / cjf:tfljs xf]Og ls p;sf] z'4 ljj]sn] 5fgf]; eg]/ xf] . k/d]Zj/n] c;+Vo lghL{j v]nf}gf / s7k'tnL af6 cf/wgf lng'eGbf dflg;n] :jtGqfk"j{s pxfFnfO{ 5fg]sf] cf/wgf / dlxdfaf6 cfkm'nfO{ ;Gt'i6 agfpg' k5{ .

[7.17]

dflg;sf] ;[li6 cufl8 ha z}tfgn] k/d]Zj/sf] lj?4df ljb|f]x uØf], crfgs dflg;nfO{ 5fGg] df}sf lbO pkl:yt x'g'eof] . z}tfgn] dflg;nfO{ w]/} lsl;dn] kl/If fug{ ;SYof] h'g k/d]Zj/af6 ;Dej x'Fb}g -ofs'a !M!#_ o;} ul/ k/d]Zj/n] kfkdf lu/]sf] dflg;nfO{ kfk/lxt agfpg ;Sg'x'G5 . dflg;n] cfˆgf] ljZjf;sf] hfFr4f/ kfk lj?b cflTdsL df+;k]zL a9fpg ;S5 . ofs'a !M# lsgsL ltdLx? hfGb5f}, ltdLx/sf] ljZjf;sf] hfFrn] w}o{ pTkGg u/fpF5 .

[7.18]

olb k/d]Zj/ ;j{zlQmdfg ePsf] v08df z}tfg - n'l;km/ _ ;a}eGbf w]/} 1fg / a'l4n] el/Psf] k/d]Zj/sf] zlQmzfnL b'tn] lab|f]x uYof} eGg] s'/f z+s:kb 5 . x'g;S5, k/d]Zj/ ;j{zlQmdfg x'g ;Sg'x'GYof] olb Tof] s'/fnfO{ k/d]Zj/n] 5fGg'ePsf] eP ;[li6sf ;a} s'/f dfly pxfFs} lgoGq0f x'g] lyof] . o;f] ePsf] eP g t dflg;df g t :jfu{b'tdf s'g} k|sf/sf] :jtGqtf x'GYof] . clxn] o:tf] ePsf] 5 ls k/d]Zj/n] cfˆgf] k'qnfO{ alnbfgsf] lglDt lbg'eof], ;a} eGbf pRr :yfg k|bfg ug{'eof], tfls xfdl ;a} dfgjn] pxfFnfO{ 5fGg] ls g5fGg] eGg] af/]df :jtGqtf lbg'eof] .

[7.19]

z}tfgsf] syf, n'l;km/sf] ljb|f]xn] k|:t't laifonfO{ laZjf; ug{sf] lglDt ultnf] # j6f sf/0fx? lbPsf] 5 .klxnf], olb k/d]Zj/n] ;j{zlQmdfg x'g] s'/fnfO{ 5fGg' ePsf] eP pxfF x/]s s'/fdf cl;ldt k/d]Zj/ x'g'x'GYof] . t/ k/d]Zj/ l;ldt x'g'x'G5, h'g s'/f xfdLn] cl3 g} kQf nufO;s]sf 5f}+ . bf];|f], olb k/d]Zj/ ;j{zlQmdfg ePsf] eP z}tfg;Fu k/d]Zj/sf] lj?4 ljb|f]x ug{] lyPg :jtGqtf x'g] lyPg / p;n] Tof] ug{] lyPg . t];|f], olb o:tf] x'Gy]g eg] s] z]tfgn] cfkm'n] lhTg] cj;/ gePsf] hfGbf hfGb} k/d]Zj/sf] lj?4 ljb|f]x ug{] cfF6 uYof]{ / z}tfgn] oxL s'/f ;f]r]sf] x'g'k5{ ls sDtLdf klg p;n] aflx/L laho xft kfg{]5 . xfdLn] p;sf] a]xf]/f nfO{ 7Ls g7fg] klg xfdL of] s'/fdf ;xdt x'g'k5{ ls n'l;km/nfO{ cflTds s'/fx?sf af/]df klg w]/} hfgsf/L lyof] . o;}sf/0f dflg; / z}tfg;Fu k/d]Zj/ ;j{zlQmdfg x'g'x'Gg eGg] s'/fdf ljZjf; ug{] alnof] sf/0f lyof] .

[7.20]

afOansf] z'?jft pTklQsf] k':ts klxnf] cWofo klxnf] kb æz?dfÆ eGg] zAbaf6 ePsf] 5 . xfdLn] cfkm';+u ;f]Wg} kg{] k|Zg of] 5 ls s]sf] æz'?jft <Æ xfdLn] o;sf] cy{ k/d]Zj/s} ;'?jft eGg vf]h]sf] xf]Og lsgsL lxa|' ^M# cg';f/ k/d]Zj/sf] z'?jft g} 5}g . o;sf] dtna of] klg xf]Og ls ;a} ;[li6sf] z'?jft x'g'eGbf klxn] g} :ju{b'tx? cl:tTjdf lyP eGg] s'/f afOann] atfp5 -k|sfz !@M&–(_ . To;f] eP o;sf] dtnj s] xf] t < o;nfO{ o;/L a'‰g'kb{5 ls k[YjL / oxfF /xg] ofjt s'/fx?sf] z'?jft x'g'eGbf klxn] g} k/d]Zj/n] :ju{ / k[YjL ;[li6 ul/;Sg' ePsf] lyof] . t/ k[YjL z'Go / cfsf/ ljgfsf] g} lyof] . ;[li6stf{n] o;nfO{ z'? ul/;s]sf lyPgg\ . xfdL b]V5f}, olta]nf ;+;f/ lagf cfsf/sf] z'Go lyof] . csf][ zAbdf egf}+, eg] of] vfnl lyof], ulx/f] ;d'Gb|dfly k/d]Zj/sf] cfTdf 3'Dg'x'GYof] , Tof] ;do k[YjLdf kfgL afx]s c? s]xL lyPg .

[7.21]

gofF ;[li6sf] z'?jftsf] sfd ;Fu;Fu} dflg;sf] z'?jftsf] syf klg z'? eof] . …pHofnf] xf];Ú eGg] k/d]Zj/sf] arg ;Fu;Fu} ;a} s'/fsf] z'? eof] . lsg ToxfF pHofnf] lyof] < ha k/d]Zj/sf] pkl:ylt ToxfF x'GYof], pHofnf] x'GYof], eof] - ! o'xGgf !M% _.

[7.22]

o; egfO ;Fu;Fu} k/d]Zj/n] dflg;sf] lglDt agfpg'ePsf] of]hgfsf] z'/jft eof] . :ju{df ljb|f]x ug{]x?n] cl3 g} 7fpF lnO;s]sf lyP lsgeg] z}tfg cfˆgf wkf}/]x?sf ;fy k[YjLdf v;fln;s]sf] lyof] - k|sf; !@M&,*,!@,!# _ . pm clw g} ;k{sf] gfdn] kl/lrt eO;s]sf] lyof], - k|sfz !@M( _ / k/d]Zj/n] p;sf] ljb|f]xnfO{ k|of]u ug{] af6f] e]§fO;Sg'ePsf] lyof] . k/d]Zj/sf] lglDt cfˆgf] OR5f cg';f/ z}tfgnfO{ k|of]u ug{' of] g} k6s lyPg . pTklQsf] k':ts #& b]lv %) cWofo laz]if ul/ pTklQ !%M@) df pNn]lvt o'z'kmsf] hLjgLnfO{ x]/]/ klg xfdl yfxf ug{ ;S5f} . z}tfgsf] ljb|f]xL, kfk :jfefjn] klg s;/L k/d]Zj/sf] ;]jf ug{ ;S5 < s;/L t eGbf o;n] dflg;nfO{ OR5fcg';f/ 5fGgsf] lglDt df}sf lbG5 .

[7.23]

dflg;nfO[ :jtGqtfdf /fVgsf] nflu k/d]Zj/sf] k"j{ of]hgf lyof] . :jtGqtf pjef]u ug{sf] lglDt tkfO{;+u dg nfu]sf] s'/f 5fGg] clwsf/ lglxt ePsf] x'G5 . dflg;n] k/d]Zj/sf] OR5f ljkl/tsf] s'/f 5fGg] df}sfsf] lglDt k/d]Zj/n] z}tfgnfO{ cg'dlt lbg'ePsf] 5 . dflg;nfO{ 5gf}6 ug{] :jtGqtf lbOPsf] 5 .olb k/d]Zj/sf] OR5fnfO{ 5gf}6 u/] Ogfd kfpg] / gu/] b08 kfpg] s'/f lglZrt 5 . of] s'/f k/d]Zj/sf] arg4f/ dflg;nfO{ k|i6 kfl/Psf] 5 . ca dflg;nfO{ k/d]Zj/sf] OR5f cg';f/ sfd ug{] ls z}tfgsf] OR5f cg';f/ sfd ug{] ls z}tfgsf] OR5f cg';f/ sfd ug{] :jtGqtf 5 .

[7.24]

;[li6stf{4f/f pxfFnfO{ dlxdf ug{]x? olb s7k'tnLsf] ?kdf pxfFnfO{ ;]jf ug{ / cf/wgf ug{ v6fOPsf] eP To;af6 pxfFn] sltsf] dlxdf kfpg'x'GYof] t < ;[li6stf{ Toltv]/ dfq dlxldt aGg ;Sg'x'G5 hlt a]nf pxfFsf] cf/wsx?n] cGo s'/fx?sf] kl/Iff cfpbf–cfpFb} pxfFnfO{ cf/wgf ug{] 5gf}6 u5{g\ . of] pxfFk|ltsf] em'sfj xf] / ljZjf;of]Uotf xf] . k/d]Zj/sf] of]hgf klg olx lyof] pxfFsf] dflg;x?sf] lglDt of] g} k"j{lglZrt of]hgf xf] . pxfFn] dflg; hfltsf] lglDt lv|i64f/ cgGt hLjg kfpg] 9f]sf ;bf v'Nnf /fv]/ p4f/ / d'lQmnfO{ ;a}sf] lglDt ;Dej agfpg' ePsf] 5 . pxfFsf] k"j{ lglZt of]hgfn] klg dflg;nfO{ 5gf}6 ug{] :jtGqtf4f/f g} p;n] k/d]Zj/sf] ;]jf ug{] eGg] s'/f 5fGg ;Sb5 . of] 5gf}6 ug{] ca;/ k/d]Zj/n] lbg'ePsf] xf] / k/d]Zj/sf] k"j{ lglZrt of]hgf xf] .

[7.25]

k/d]Zj/nfO{ z'?jf6 g} of] s'/f yfxf 5 ls sf]xLn] pxfFnfO{ 5gf}6 ug{] 5}gg\ . sf]lxn] pxfFsf] OR5f k"/f ug{] e/dHb'/ sf]lzif ug{] 5g\ eg] sf]xLn] ug{] 5}gg\ . h;n] k/d]Zj/sf] lglDt cf1fsfl/tfdf hLpb5, pm clw blv g} k/d]Zj/sf] cflz; lng kfpb5. k/d]Zj/nfO{ yfxf 5 ls dflg;sf] lglDt o; ;+;f/df 5fGg'kg{] b'O{ af6f]x? lbOPsf 5g\ / oL b'OdWo] s'g 5fGg], dflg;sf] xftdf 5 . xfdL hf] hltn] ;fF3'/f] af6f] ckgfP/ lv|i6nfO{ r'g]sf 5f}, pxfFn] xfdLnfO{ :juL{o kl/jf/df wd{ k'q–k'qLsf] ?kdf u|x0f ug{'x'G5 - /f]dL *M@( _ . h;n] pxfFsf] aGg 5f]8]/ o; ;+;f/sf] s'/fx? dfg]sf] pxfFsf] zq'nfO{ rG5, p;n] ToxL cg';f/ s6gL ug{]5 . /f]dL *M@( h;–h;nfO{ pxfFn] klxn]af6 lrGg'ePsf] 5 , pxfFn] ltgLx?nfO{ cfˆgf] k'qsf] ?k;dfg\ agfpgnfO{ w]/} efOx? dWo] pxfFnfO{ Ho]i6 xf]pmg eg]/ clwaf6} lgo'Qm ug{'eof] . ofs'a $M@ Jolerf/L dflg;n xf], ;+;f/;Fusf] ldqtf k/d]Zj/;Fusf] zq'tf xf] eGg] s'/f s] ltdLx?nfO{ yfxf 5}g < o;sf/0f hf] ;+;f/;+u ldq x'g rfxG5, To;n] cfkm}nfO{ k/d]Zj/sf] zq' agfpF5 . unflt ^M&–* wf]sfdf gk/, k/d]Zj/sf] 7§f x'[Fb}g, lsgeg] dflg;n] h] /f]Kt5, To;}sf] s6gL klg ug{]5 . h;n] cfˆgf] kfkdo :jefjsf] lglDt /f]Kt5, To;n] cfˆgf] kfkdo :jefj af6 g} ;j{gfzsf] s6gL ug{]5 . t/ h;n] cfTdsf] lglDt /f]Kt5, To;n] cfTdsf] g} cgGt hLjg s6gL ug{]5 .

[7.26]

h;n] pxfFnfO{ rG5, pgLx?nfO{ k/d]Zj/n] cfˆgf] ;Gtfg / ;DklQsf] xsjfnf agfpg'x'G5 . o'xGgf !M!@

[7.27]

pxfFn] of] OT5f ug{'x'G5 ls ;a} hgf pxfFlt/ kmls{pg\ t/ pxfFnfO{ yfxf 5 , slt hgf pxfFlt/ kmls{g] 5}gg\ . @ kq'; #M( cfˆgf] k|lt1fsf] af/]df k|e' l9nf ug{'x'G5 eGg] s;}–s;}sf] egfO ePtf klg pxfF l9nf] ug{'x'Gg, t/ sf]lx klg gi6 gxf]; t/ ;a} hgfn] kZrtfk u?g\ eGg] OR5f u/]/ k|e' ltdLx? k|lt w}o{jfg x'g'x'G5 .

[7.28]

xfdLn] Psl5g\ ;f]Rg] xf] eg] pxfFn] ;aeGbf klxnf xfdL ;a}nfO{ r'Gg'eof] t/ dflg;x?n] pxfFnfO{ r'g]g\ lsg < lsgeg] xfdLn] xfd|f] clenfifx? k'/f ug{ vf]Hof} . xfd|} 3d08df km'Nof} / k/d]Zj/n] pkxf/ :j?k lbg'ePsf] :jtGqtfn] xfdLnfO{ of] ljsNk lbof] . k/d]Zj/n] ;a}nfO{ af]nfpg' ePsf] 5, h;nfO{ 5fGg'ePsf] 5 / h;n] pxfFsf] af]nfj6nfO{ :jLsf/ u/], pgLx?n] pxfFnfO{ k5\ofpg] lgwf] u/] . of] pxfFsf] k"0f{ lglZrt of]hgf xf] .

[7.29]

ca xfdL o; s'/fnfO{ >]0fLdf /fvL cjnf]sg u/f} . >]0fL #!. dflg;n] c–cfˆgf] dfu{ k5\ofp5g\ elg hfGbf–hfGb} klg k/d]Zj/n] dflg;nfO{ :jLsf/ jf OGsf/ ug{] :jtGqtf lbg'eof] . >]0fL #@= / cfˆgf] hgx?nfO{ ljZjf; of]Uo agfpg k/d]Zj/n] pxfFsf] zq' z}tfgnfO{ klg k|of]u ug{'x'G5 . >]0fL ##=;a} dflg;nfO{ pxfFsf] cf/ws agfpg] k/d]Zj/sf] OR5f xf] t/ sf]lx dflg;x?n] pxfFsf] of] s'/fnfO{ 5gf}6 ug{] 5}gg\ eGg] s'/f pxfFnfO{ yfxf 5 . hsl/o *M* d ltgLx?nfO{ o?;n]ddf a:gnfO{ Nofpg]5' . ltgLx? d]/f] k|hf x'g]5g\ / d ltgLx?sf k/d]Zj/ eP/ ltgLx? k|lt ljZjf;L / wfld{s x'g]5' . lxa|' *M!) k/dk|e' eGg'x'g5, tL lbgkl5 d O;|fonsf] 3/fgf ;+u of] s/f/ afFWg]5', ltgLx?sf dgdf d]/f] Joj:yf /flvlbg]5' , / d ltgLx?sf x[bodf Tof] n]lvlbg]5' / d ltgLx?sf k/d]Zj/ x'g]5', clg ltgLx? d]/f k|hf x'g]5g\ . >]0fL #$=h;n] k/d]Zj/nfO{ k5\ofpg] s'/f 5gf}6 u5{, p;n] k/d]Zj/sf] Psdfq k'qsf] :j?k cfkm'df wf/0ff u5{ - /f]dL *M@( _ . h;–h;nfO{ pxfFn] klxn]af6} lrGg'ePsf] 5, pxfFn] ltgLx?nfO{ cfˆgf] k'qsf] ?k;dfg agfpgnfO{ w]/} efOx? dWo] pxfF rflx Ho]i7 xf]pg eg]/ clwaf6} lgo'Qm ug{'eof] . >]0fL #%=h;n] k/d]Zj/nfO{ k5\ofpg] lg0f{o u5{ To;nfO{ k/d]Zj/n] pxfFsf] k'q o]z' lv|i6 4f/ kfk d]6\g k|ltlglw ug{'ePsf], d[To'af6 Gofo ug{'x'g]5 . /f]dL *M#) h;–h;nfO{ pxfFn] cl3 af6} lgo'Qm ug{'eof] / ltgLx?nfO{ pxfFn] af]nfpg' klg eof] / h;–h;nfO{ pxfFn] af]nfpg'eof], ltgLx?nfO{ pxfFn] wdL{ 7xØfpg'eof] / h;–h;nfO{ pxfFn] wdL{ 7xØfpg'eof] ltgLx?nfO{ pxfFn] dlxldt klg kfg{'eof] . >]0fL #^=hf], pxfFh:t} wfld{stfsf] k|sfzdf lx8\5, p;nfO{ k/d]Zj/n] cgGt hLjg k|bfg ug{] lgZro ug{'ePsf] 5 - ! o'xGgf !M& _ . ! o'xGgf !M& t/ pxfF Hof]ltdf x'g'ePem} olb xfdL klg Hof]ltdf lx8\5f} eg], Ps csf{]l;t xfd|f] ;+ult x'G5 / pxfFsf k'q o]z'sf] /utn] xfdLn] ;a} kfkaf6 z'4 kf5{ .

[7.30]

wd{zf:qLo l;4fGtsf bf]wf/sf s'/fx?nfO{ k|i6 kfg{ ;Sg] Psdfq k|df0f eg] k/d]Zj/sf] jrg dfq xf] . k/d]Zj/sf] dgnfO{ s;n] hfGg ;Sb5 < k/d]Zj/sf] ljrf/ xfdL dfgjLo ;demzlQm eGbf k/sf] s'/f xf] . hxfF k/d]Zj/ cfkm}n] xfdL;+u cfˆgf s'/f k|sfz kfg{ xfd|f] ;demzlQm vf]nL lbg'ePsf] 5 . klxnf] s'/f t pxfFn] cfˆgf] lnlvt jrg4f/f of] ug{'ePsf] 5 . bf];|f] s'/f, pxfFn] cfˆgf] Psdfq k'q o; ;+;f/df k7fP/ jrgnfO{ b]xwf/L ug{'eof] . olb k/d]Zj/n] ulx/f s'/fx? nfO{ g} k|sfz kfg{'x'G5 eg] lsg cGbfh nfpg] < csf{] s'/f k/d]Zj/n] xfdLnfO{ lv|i6 o]z'sf] hLjg / jrg4f/f pxfFsf] dxfgtfnfO{ x]g{] cg'dlt lbg'ePsf] 5 .

[7.31]

hf] ;'s}sf] cyf{t s'g} klg JolQm xf]

ljz]; ul/ gofF lgod afOandf of] …hf] ;'s}… eGg] zAb w]/} k6s k|of]u ul/Psf] 5 . u|Ls efiff cg';f/ gofF lgodsf] of] zAb @ zAbsf] ldng xf] . oL b'O zAbx? :6«f]ªsf] pklgifb #(%^ / #%** k]hdf w]/} k6s k|of]u ul/Psf] 5 . ##(%^ df …kf;Ú zAb ;+nUg 5 hxfF ;a} :j?kx? b]vfOPsf] 5 h:t}M k|]d, jrg, ;a} s'g}, x/]s, ;a} cflb . of] …kf;Ú u|Lsaf6 zAbaf6 xfdL ;lhn} of] s'/f a'‰g ;S5f} ls oxfF k/d]Zj/n] ;a}nfO{ ;xeflu u/fpg rfxfg'x'G5 . ##%** df pNn]v ul/P cg';f/ …xf]Ú eGg] zAb 5 . h;f] cy{ …VoftLÚ k|ltljDa, c+u|]hLdf oL lgkftsf] ?kdf slxn] sfxL cfpF5, h;sf] cy{ of], Tof], k|To]s, pm, plg, cflb x'g cfpF5 .

[7.32]

ha xfdLn] of] zAbx? Ps cfkf;df hf]8\5f}, o;sf] cy{ rflx …x/]sÚ jf …k|To]sÚ JolQm x'g cfpF5 .

[7.33]

ca, …hf] ;'s}Ú zAb k"j{ lglZrtsf] ;jfndf xfd|f] ;demzlQmdf a'‰gsf] nflu cln sl7g 5 . xfdL of] zAb4f/ k/d]Zj/af6sf] d'lQmsf] ;Gb]z ;a} dflg;x?sf] lglDt b]V5f}+ . xf], k/d]Zj/n] ;a} dflg;x?sf] lglDt pxfFsf] cg'u|x /flv lbg'ePsf] 5 . k/d]Zj/n] xfdLk|lt of] ljZjf; /fVg'ePsf] 5, ls xfdL kfksf] Psl5gsf] cfgGbdf eGbf oxfFnfO{ k5\ofpg g} /f]Hb5f}+ . xfdLn] k/d]Zj/nfO{ k|]d ug{' eGbf klxnf pxfFn] xfdLnfO{ k|]d ug{' eof] . xfdLn] pxfFnfO{ 5fGg'eGbf klxnf pxfFn] xfdLnfO{ 5fGg'eof] t/ pxfFsf] k|lt1fx? ltgLx?sf] nflu dfq xf], h;n] pxfFnfO{ lgDtf] :jLsf/ u/]sf 5g\ . pxfFsf] k|lt1fdf glhpg] w]/}sf] lglDt of] b'Mvsf] s'/f x'g]5 . x/]sf s'/fdf pxfFn] zt{ /flvlbg'ePsf] 5 . pxfF eGg'x'G5 , æolb ltdLn] o;f] ug{] xf] eg] d Tof] ug{] 5'Æ . sf]xLn] of] s'/fdf ljjfb ug{]5g\ ls d'lQm l;Q}df xf], of] ;To xf] t/ lgzt{ xf]Og . olb s;}n] lv|i6 o]z' lagf g} :ju{ hfg rfxG5 eg] Tof] ;Dej 5}g - o'xGgf !$M^ _ o'xGgf !$M^ o]z'n] ltgLx?nfO{ eGg'eof], æaf6f], ;To, / hLjg dg}+ x'F . d4f/ afx]s sf]xL klg lktfsxfF cfpg ;Sb}g .Æ

[7.34]

o'xGg #M!^ df xfdL of] s'/f kfpF5f}+ ls pxfFnfO{ ljZjf; ug{] sf]lx klg gfz x'g] 5}g . o'xGgf #M!& df xfdL of] kfpF5f}+ ls ;+;f/ o]z'4f/ dfq arfpg;Sg'x'G5 . of] s'/f yfxf ug{'xf]; ls oxfF lglZrt ?kdf ;a}nfO{ pxfFsf] vfFrf] v8\lsPsf] 5 . pbfx/0f nflu M [7.35]

olb d]/f] 5f]/Lsf] :s'n 5'§L x'g] ;do @ ah] xf] eg] pm @M#) leq 3/df cfOk'u]sf] x'g'k5{ . ;f+Rr} eGg'kbf{ pgL 3/ cfOk'Ug'k5{ t/ o;sf] of] xf]Og ls ;w}+ Ps gfzn] pgL oxL ;dodf cfOk'lU5g\ . w]/} s'/f pgsf] j+zdf ePsf] / j+zeGbf aflx/fsf] s'/fn] pgsf] ;donfO{ x]/km]/ u/fOlbg ;S5 . …k5{Ú / …kb{}gÚ eGg] zAbdf s'g} klg lglZrtdf 5}g . To:t} …;S5Ú …x'g;Sb}g eGg] zAbdf klg h'g xfdLn] !& kbdf e]§fpF5f} . of] s'/fnfO{ dx;'z ug{] s'/fx? pgLx?sf] nflu sl7g s'/f ePsf] 5 h;n] cgGt ;'/Iffsf] l;4fGtnfO{ k5\ofPsf 5g\ .

[7.36]

k/d]Zj/n] kIfkft ug{'x'Gg . pxfFn] dflg; aLrdf s'g} e]befj /fVg'x'Gg / s;}nfO{ xfgL–gf]S;fgL ug{'x'Gg . pxfFn] ;a}nfO{ a/fa/L lbg'x'G5 . k|]l/t !)M#$ ta kq';n] af]Ng yfn], æ;fFRr} g} d b]Vb5',ls k/d]Zj/n] kIfkft ug{'x'Gg .Æ ! kq'; !M& cfuf]af6 vfl/g] t/ gi6 eP/ hfg] ;'g eGbf klg ltdLx?sf] ljZjf; d'Nojfg 5 . ltdLx?sf] of] ljZjf; ;fFrf] k|dfl0ft xf]; / o]z' lv|i6 k|s6 x'g'xFbf k|z+;f, dlxdf, / cfb/sf] of]Uo agf]; .

[7.37]

tn lbOPsf afOalno kf7x?df oL s'/f k|i6 pNn]v ul/Psf] 5 . o'xGg !M!@ gf]6 Mo]z'n] pgLx?nfO{ zlQm lbg'eof] h;n] pxfFnfO{ u|x0f u/] .

[7.38]

olb k/d]Zj/ lktf / k'q Ps} xf] eg] clg lv|i6n] k/d]Zj/ ePsf] x'gfn] pxfFnfO{ :jLsf/ ug{]x?nfO{ zlQmlbg'eof] . oxfFaf6 xfdL b'O{ j6f s'/f l;Sg ;S5f}+ . != k/d]Zj/n] cfˆgf] ;[li6nfO{ zlQm lbg'ePsf] 5 . @= dflg;;+u :jtGqtf pkef]u ug{] zlQm 5 tfls pgLx?n] cfkm'mfO{ OR5f nfu]sf] s'/f 5fGg kfcf]; . o'xGg %M@$ ;fFRr} d ltdLx?nfO{ eGb5' , h;n] d]/f] jrg ;'G5 / dnfO{ k7fpg'x'g]dfly ljZjf; u5{, To;l;t cgGt hLjg 5 . Tof] Gofodf cfpb}g t/ d[To' b]lv To;n] hLjgdf k|j]z u/]sf] 5 . lkmlnKkL @M!@ o;sf/0f d]/f lk|o xf], h;/L ltdLx?n] ;w}+ cf1fkfng u/]sf 5f}, d]/f] pkl:yltdf dfq u/] h:tf] xf]Og, t/ ca ´g\ a9L d]/f] cg'kl:yltdf 8/ / sDk;fy ltdLx?sf] cfˆgf] d'lQmsf] sfd k"/f ug{ kl/>d u/ .

[7.39]

hf] ;Totfaf6 axlsG5, pgLx? d[To"sf] hf]lvddf kg{]5g\ . ofs'a %M!(–@) d]/f efO xf], olb ltdLx?dWo] sf]xL ;Toaf6 a/flnP/ hfFbf s;}n] To;nfO{ lkm/fP/ Nofof}+ eg] To;n] To;n] hfgf];\ ls Ps kfkLnfO{ To;sf] s'dfu{af6 lkm/fP/ NofpF5 , To;nfO{ d[To"af6 arfpg]5 / c;+Vo kfknfO{ 9fSg]5 .

[7.40]

xfdL dflg;sf] :jtGqtfsf] af/]df 5nkmn ub} cfO/x]sf 5f}+ . t/ dflg;k|lt k/d]Zj/sf] OZj/Lo OR5f s] xf] t < k/d]Zj/ s] rfxg'x'G5 < @ kq'; #M( df o;/L n]lvPsf] 5 hxfF k/d]Zj/sf] OR5f k|i6 kfl/Psf] 5 ls pxfFsf] OR5f xfdL ;a}nfO{ arfpg' xf] . sf]xL–sf]xLnfO{ 5fGg' xf]Og, g];'s} eg]tf klg dflg;x?n] g} c? of]hgfx? agfPsf 5g\ .

[7.41]

dflg;nfO{ :jtGqtfdf 5f]8\g] s'/f g} k/d]Zj/sf] 7"nf] pkxf/ xf] / of] pxfFn] k|i6 b]lvg] zAbx?df k|z:t ?kdf crDd tl/sfn] ug{'ePsf] k|of]udf b]lvPsf] 5 . c´ :ki6 hfgsf/Lsf] lglDt tn lbPsf kf7nfO{ ljrf/ u/f}+ . dlQ !)M#@–## #@ o;sf/0f x/]s h;n] dflg;x?sf ;fd' dnfO{ :jLsf/ u5{, d klg p;nfO{ :ju{df x'g'x'g] d]/f lktfsf] ;fd'Gg] :jLsf/ ug{]5' . ## t/ x/]s h;n] dnfO{ dflg;x?sf ;fd'Gg] OGsf/ u5{, d klg p;nfO{ :ju{df x'g'x'g] d]/f lktfsf] ;fd'Gg] OGsf/ ug{]5 .

[7.42]

dlQ !*M$–% $ h;n] of] ;fg] afns h:t} cfkm'nfO{ gd| t'NofpF5, ToxL :ju{df] /fHodf ;a}eGbf dxfg\ x'g]5 . % h;n] d]/f] gfpFdf Pp6f o:tf] afnsnfO{ u|x0f u5{, To;n] dnfO{ u|x0f u5{ .

[7.43]

o'xGgf $M!$ t/ h;–h;n] d}n] lbg] kfgL lkpF5 Tof] slxNo} ltvf{pg] 5}g . h'g kfgL d To;nfO{ kbg]5', Tof] To;af6 cgGt hLjgsf] lglDt pld|/xg] kfgLsf] d"n aGg]5 .

[7.44]

o'xGgf !@M@^ clg lhpg] / d dfly ljZjf; ug{] k|To]s slxNn} dg{]5}+g . s] ltdL of] ljZjf; u5f}+ <

[7.45]

o'xGgf !@M$^ d ;+;f/df Hof]lt eP/ cfPsf] 5', tfls ddfly ljZjf; ug{] cGwsf/df g/xf];\ .

[7.46]

k|]l/t @M@( efO xf], xfd|f k'vf{ bfpbsf] ljifodf d tkfOx?nfO{ lgZrotf;fy eGg ;S5', ls pgL d/] / ufl8P clg cfhsf] lbg;Dd pgsf] lrxfg 5Fb}5 .

[7.47]

k|]l/t !)M$# ;a] cudaQmfx?n] pxfFsf] ujfxL lbPsf 5g\ ,ls pxfFdfly laZjf; ug{] k|To]sn] pxfFsf] gfpF4f/f kfk–Ifdf kfpF5 .

[7.48]

k|]l/t !#M@^–@& @^=P ca|xfdsf j+zsf] ;Gtfg / ltdLx?dWo] k/d]Zj/sf] 8/ dfGg] P efO xf]. xfdL sxfF g} of] d'lQmsf] ;Gb]z k7fOPsf] 5 . @&=lsgeg] o?;n]dsf afl;Gbf / ltgLx?sf zf;sx?n] pxfFnfO{ glrg]/ / x/]s zafwdf kl9g] cudaQmfsf argx? ga'´]/ pxfFnfO{ b08sf] cf1f lbO tL jrg k'/f u/] .

[7.49]

o'xGgf $M!% h;n] o]z'nfO{ k/d]Zj/sf k'q x'g'x'G5 egL :jLsf/ u5{, To;df k/d]Zj/ af; ug{'x'G5 jk/ Tof] rflx k/d]Zj/df .

[7.50]

! o'xGgf %M! o]z' g} lv|i6 x'g'x'G5 elg ljZjf; ug{] x/]s k/d]Zj/sf] afns xf] . h;n] afa'nfO{ k|]d u5{, o;n] ltgsf] 5f]/fnfO{ klg k|]d u5{ .

[7.51]

cufl8 eg] h:t} dflg;n] of] ;+;f/nfO{ jf k/d]Zj/nfO{ 5fGg ;S5 . k/d]Zj/nfO{ 5gf}6 ug{] hlt ;a} hgf k/d]Zj/ af6} hGd]sf x'g\ . to;sf/0f of] ;f+;l/s s'/f;+u ldNg] hlt k/d]Zj/sf la/f]wL x'g\ . ofs'a $M$ Jolerf/L dflg; xf], ;+;f/;+usf] ldqtf k/d]Zj/;+usf] zq'tf xf] eGg] s'/f s] ltdLx?nfO{ yfxf 5}g < o;sf/0f hf] ;+;f/;+u ldqtf x'g rfxG5, To;n] cfkm}nfO{ k/d]Zj/sf] zq' agfpF5 .

[7.52]

s;n] OGsf/ ug{ ;S5 ls dflysf oL s'/fx? :jtGqtfsf] lglDt /flvPsf 5g\ . o;nfO{ s;/L unt b[li6sf]0faf6 x]l/Psf] 5, eGg] s'/f x]/f}+ . [7.53]

/f]dL *M@$ n] cln km/s tl/sfn] eG5, h'g s'/f xfdL ;a}n] ;'g]sf] x'g'k5{ . k/d]Zj/sf] kl/jf/df xfdL yfxf u5f}+ ls xfdL cg'u|x4f/f arfOPsf 5f}+ . cg'u\x g} k/d]Zj/sf] k|]ldnf] c+ufnf] xf] , h;4f/f kfksf] bnbndf kmFl;/x]sfx?n] d'lQm kfpg ;S5 / ;a} hgfn] kfk u/]sf 5g\ / ;a}nfO{ k/d]Zj/sf] cg'u|xsf] cfjZostf 5 . [7.54]

s'g cy{df xfdL k/d]Zj/sf] k|]dsf] c+ufnf]df afFlwPsf 5f}+ t < olb xfdLn] pxfFsf] c+ufnf]df uPgf}+ eg] xfdL lglZrt ?kdf cfˆgf] kfkdf dg{]5f}+ . ljZjf; u/]sf sf/0f cg'u|x 4f/f xfdL arfOPsf 5f}+ - Plkm;L @M* _ . p4f/ / d'lQmsf] ljifodf laZjf; / cfzf Ps csf]{sf] kl/k'/s x'g\, Ps csf{df cnu x'g ;Sb}gg\ - /f]dL *M@$ _ . cg'u|xsf] nflu xfdLn] sfd ug{' kb{}g lsgsL of] k/d]Zj/n] kfk/lxt lv|i6sf] /ut4f/f pkxf/ :j?k pknAw u/fOlbg'ePsf] 5, t/ xfdLn] cfˆgf] d'lQmsf] nflu cjZo sfd ug{'k5{, s;/L < pxfFn] cfˆgf] hLjg lbg'ePsf] 5, To;nfO{ xfdL :jLsfg{' kb{5, gq 8'Ag]5f}+ . k/d]Zj/sf] cg'u|xL, k|]ldnf] xftfnO{ xfd|f] ljZjf;sf] xftn] ;dfpg'kb{5 . olb xfdLn] o; s'/f k|lt cfˆgf] cfFvf aGb ul/ s]xL b]Vb}gf} eg] xfdL gfl;g] 5f}+ . xfdLn] o; ljZjf;sf] sfdnfO{ ;do 5Fb} ug{'kb{5 . xfdLn] ;fgf gfgLx?n] h:tf] cfzf ug{'kb{5 . olb ljZjf;nfO{ xfdLleq lglxt x'g] cg'dlt lbG5f} eg] k/d]Zj/n] ljZjf;sf] x[bo lbg'x'g]5 . Ps hgf ;fgf] gfgLn] cfˆgf] afafsf] k|lt1fdfly ;f+;l/s s'/fsf] nflu e/f]iff u5{ . of] Ps k6s km]/L ;fgf gfgLx? h:t} x'g] ;do xf], :juL{o lktfsf] k|lt1f k|fKt ug{sf] nflu . xfdL xfd|f] ljZjf;4f/ arfOPsf 5f} -sfd / cfzf4f/f Plkm;L @M*–(_. ofs'a @M@$ ltdLx? b]V5f} ls sfd4f/f dflg; wdL{ 7xl/bf] /x]5, ljZjf;4f/f dfq xf]Og . /f]dL *M@$ lsgsL oxL cfzfdf xfdLn] d'lQm kfPsf lyof},ca b]lvg] rflx cfzf t cfzf g} xf]Og . lsgsL b]v]sf] s'/fsf] cfzf s;n] u5{ / <

[7.55]

! o'xGgf @M#–$ ;Dd n]lvPsf oL s'/fx? ;a}eGbf zlQmzfnL pbfx/0f x'g\ . ! o'xGgf @M#–$ olb xfdLn] pxfFsf cf1fx? kfng uØf}+ eg] o;}af6 xfdL yfxf kfpg ;S5f}+, ls xfdL pxfFnfO{ lrGb5f}+ . h;n] d pxfFnfO{ lrG5' eG5 t/ pxfFsf cf1fx? pnª\3g u5{, Tof] ´'6f] xf], / To;df ;To 5}g .

[7.56]

/f]dL *M@* kb cg';f/ pxfFnfO{ k|]d ug{]x?sf] lglDt x/]s s'/fdf k/d]Zj/n] enfO g} ug{'x'G5 . k/d]Zj/nfO{ k|]d ug{' eg]sf] xfdLn] :jtGqtfdf :j–OR5fn] cfkm'nfO{ ;'lDkg' xf] . of] xfd|f] ljZjf;sf] xft4f/ a9fOPsf] xf] . lsgsL xfdLn] k/d]Zj/nfO{ k|]d ug{] / pxfFsf] OR5f k'/f ug{] s'/fnfO{ 5gf}6 u/]sf 5f}+ . lsg < k|]d u/]sf sf/0f pxfFsf] OR5fdf cfkm'nfO{ lbPsf 5f} . To;sf/0f x'g ;S5 ls xfdL4f/ pxfFsf] OR5f k"/f xf]; - dlQ ^M!) _ . :ju{df h:t} k[YjLdf klg k/d]Zj/sf] OR5f k'/f x'g]5 .

[7.57]

oL g} ;dk{0f ul/Psf cfTdfsf] af/]df /f]dL *M@( df n]lvPsf] 5 . k/d]Zj/n] cfˆgf] 1fgdf of] s'/f yfxf ug{'ePsf] 5 ls pxfFnfO{ k5\ofpg] s'[/f h;n] 5gf}6 u5{, To;sf] lglDt ;w} x/]s k':tfdf 5'6sf/f 5 . pxfFsf] /fHosf] af/]df of] klxnf g} 7xØfO;lsPsf] s'[/f xf] . kfkLx?nfO{ k/d]Zj/n] af]nfpg' eof] / af]nfOPsf x?nfO{ dlxldt / lgbf]{if 7xØfpg' eof] . /f]dL *M#)

[7.58]

/f]dL ( cWofosf] ( b]lv !! kb;Dd o;/L elgPsf]5 ls k/d]Zj/n] k|]dsf] k|lt1fsf] aRrf 5fGg'eof] . k/d]Zj/n] P;fasf] 7fpFdf sfG5f eP klg ofs'anfO{ 5fGg'eof] . ofs'an] k/d]Zj/sf] cflz; /xg] hGd l;4f clwsf/nfO{ dxTj lbOPsf] x'gfn] t/ P;fan] cfˆgf] hGdl;4 clwsf/ u'dfof] . pTklQ @%M#$

[7.59]

/f]dL (M!@–!$ n] c´ k|i6 kf5{ . /f]dL (M!@M!$ !@= /]lasfnfO{ o;} elgPsf] lyof], h]7f]n] sfG5fsf] ;]jf ug{]5 . !#= o;f] n]lvPsf] 5, ofs'anfO{ d}n] k|]d u/]F, t/ P;fafnO{ t'R5f 7fg]F . !$= ca xfdL s] egf}+ < ls k/d]Zj/df cGofo 5 t < sbflk xf]Og .

[7.60]

cfbd ofgsL klxnf] dfgj / o]z' h;nfO{ bf];|f] cfbfd elgG5 . oL b'O{ cfbfdnfO{ t'nfgfTds cWofg ubf{ oxL cj:yf k|ltljlDjt x'g cfpF5 . kfk/lxt cj:yfdf ;[li6 ul/Psf] klxnf] dfga cfbfd lyof], h;n] k/d]Zj/sf] cf1f pnª\3g ul/ cfˆgf] hGdl;4 clwsf/ u'dfPsf] lyof] eg] o]z' hf] kfk/lxt x'g'x'G5, h;n] k/d]Zj/sf] OR5fnfO{ 5gf]6 ug{'eof] / clxn] k/d]Zj/sf] bflxg] xftkl§ a:g'ePsf] 5 - /f]dL %M!$, ! sf]=!%M@@, @% _ . ca xfdL s] o;f] eGg ;S5f} ls k/d]Zj/ pxfFnfO{ k|]d ug{]x?nfO{ dfq r'g]sf] sf/0f xl¶ / cwdL{ x'g'x'G5 < k/d]Zj/ hf] wdL{ / k|]ldnf] x'g'x'G5, pxfFn] pxfFsf cg'ofoLx?nfO{ 5fGg'x'G5 . of] af6f] ;a}sf] lglDt v'Nnf ul/Psf] 5 ls ca o;f] ug{'eof] eg]/ pxfFnfO{ xfdL bf]ifL agfpg ;S5f}+ < pxfFsf] OR5f OGsf/ ug{]x?nfO{ bof gb]vfpg' k/d]Zj/sf] uNtL eof] / < olb k/d]Zj/n] ;a}sf] lglDt v'Nnf df}sf lbg'ePsf] 5 eg] - pTklQ @*M!^,@! _ . /f]dL *M!)–!& !)= olb lv|i6 ltdLx?df x'g'x'G5 eg] kfksf] sf/0fn] ltdLx?sf zl// d/]sf eP tfklg ltdLx?sf cfTdf wfld{stfsf] sf/0fn] lhpFbf x'G5g\ . !!= t/ olb o]z'nfO{ d/]sfaf6 lhljt kfg{'x'g]sf cfTdf ltdLx?df af; ug{'x'G5 eg], lv|i6 o]z'nfO{ d/]sfaf6 lhljt kfg{'x'g]n] g} ltdLx?df af; ug{'x'g] pxfFsf cfTDff4f/ ltdLx?sf d/0flzn zl//nfO{ klg hLjg lbg'x'g]5 . !@= o;}n] t efO xf], kfk :jfefjfg';f/ lhpgnfO{ xfdL kfk :jefj k|lt afWo 5}gf}+ . !#= lsgsL kfk:jefjg';f/ lhpF5f} eg] ltdLx? d5f}+ t/ olb klaqcfTdf 4f/f zl//sf sfo{x? ltdLx?n] lgd{'n kfØf}+ eg] ltdLx? hLpg]5f}+ . !$= lsgeg] ;a}, hf] k/d]Zj/sf] cfTdfn] 8f]ØfOPsf x'G5g\ , ltgLx? g} k/d]Zj/sf ;Gtfg x'g\ . !%= lsgeg] km]/L 8/df kg{nfO{ bf;Tjsf] cfTdf ltdLx?n] kfPsf 5}gf}, t/ ltdLx?n] wd{k'q x'g] cfTdf kfPsf 5f} . o;}n] ha xfdL k/d]Zj/nfO{ æcAaf lktfÆ elg k'sf5f}+ . !^= Tof] rflx xfdL k/d]Zj/sf ;Gtfg xf}+ elg kljq cfTdfn] xfd|f] cfTdf;+u ujfxL lbg'ePsf] xf] . !&= / ;Gtfg xf} eg] t pQ/flwsf/l klg xf} . k/d]Zj/sf pQ/flwsf/L / lv|i6;+u ;f´]–pQ/flwsf/L . pxfF;+u b'Mv ef]U5f}+ eg] t xfdL pxfF;+u} dlxldt klg x'g]5f}+ .

[7.61]

k/d]Zj/sf] dgkbf{] x'gnfO{ xfdLn] rfx]/ x'g] s'/f xf]Og . olb k/d]Zj/sf] cf1f kfng ug{], pxfFdfly ljZjf; / cfzf /fVg]x?sf] lglDt k/d]Zj/af6 pkxf/ :j?k ldNg] s'/f xf] . xfd|f] wfld{s cfrf/0f4f/ ljZjf; k|s6 ePsf] 5 - /f]dL (M!^ _ /f]dL (M!^ o;sf/0f dflg;sf] OR5f jf k|of;dfly of] lge{/ ub{}g, k/d]Zj/sf] s[kfdfly lge{/ ub{5 .

[7.62]

O;|fPnLx? bf;Tjdf hfFbf cfˆgf] zlQm b]vfpg k/d]Zj/n] kmf/f] /fhfnfO{ klg k|of]u ug{'eof], h;/L clxn] kfksf] bf;Tjdf z}tfgn] /fv]sf] 5 . z}tfgsf] gfz ul/;lsPsf] 5 ca dfq ;hfosf] kvf{Odf 5 . km]/L klg o;/L g} k|of]u ul/Psf] lyof] . pm bf]ifL 7xØfOof] t/ O;|fPnLx?4f/ cfˆgf] zlQm b]vfpg k/d]Zj/n] oL ;a ug{'eof] . [7.63]

lv|i6 o]z'sf] /utn] z}tfgnfO{ cl3g} ultnf] d'Ssf lbO;s]sf] 5, h;nfO{ k/d]Zj/sf] ;dodf gi6 kfg{]5 . O;|fPnLx? $) jif{ ;Dd ld> b]zdf a;]sf lyP . pgLx? ld> b]zsf gful/s lyP . pgLx?nfO{ kmf/f] /fhf afx]s c? s'g} klg ;/sf/L lgsfo / ;f+;fl/s cu'jfsf] af/]df hfgsf/L lyPg . hLjg sl7gg} lyof] t/ df]zf gfd u/]sf Ps hgfsf] egfO ;'g]/ pgLx? ld> b]z 5f]8\g tof/ lyPgg\ . pgLx?nfO{ ld> b]z 5f]8\g] dg u/fpg' cfZro{sd{ hlts} lyof] . af:tjdf ToxfF !) cfZro{sd{ eof] . oL cfZro{sd{n] ld> b]znfO{ O;|fPnLx?sf] gh/df ;fgf] b]vfOlbof] .

[7.64]

O;|fPnLx?nfO{ dgfpg] ;do ;lsPkl5 pgLx?n] df]zfnfO{ k5\fpg] lgwf] u/] / nfn ;d'Gb| kf/ u/] . jf:tadf O;|fPnLx? df]zfnfO{ hxfF uPsf] eP klg k5\ofPsf] eP x'g] lyof] . df]zfnfO{ k5\ofPsf] sf/0f pgLx?n] kmf/f] / pgsf ;]gfk|lt k/d]Zj/sf] Gofo b]Vg ;Sy] tfsL pgLx?nfO{ yfxf xf]; ls pgLx?sf k/d]Zj/ ;a}eGbf zlQmzfnL x'g'x'g5 . tL 5flgPsf hgk|lt h;/L k/d]Zj/n] cfˆgf] cg'u|x b]vfpg' eof] . pxfF nfO{ cf/wgf ug{ r'g]sf] dflg; pxfF wdL{ ePsf] x'gfn] pxfF;+u wfld{s/0f lyof] . ha k/d]Zj/n] kmf/f]sf] x[bodf s7f]/ u/fOlbg'eof] of] pxfFnfO{ ljZjf; ug{] df}sf glbPsf] sf/0f xf]Og . kmf/f]sf] lglDt o';'kmn] p;sf] ;kgfsf] cy{ vf]nL lbPsf] s'/f x]gf{]; . ha ld> b]znfO{ k/d]Zj/n] clgsfnaf6 arfpg'eof] Tof] b]v]/ lsg pgLx?n] ´'6f k/d]Zj/nfO{ o';'kmsf] k/d]Zj/nfO{ k'h]gg\ < ld> b]zsf] Oltxf;df df]zfsf] k/d]Zj/sf] cg'u|x / s[kfsf] pNn]v ul/Psf] 5 eg] of] /fhf lsg olt v/fa eof] t < cfˆgf] x[bonfO{ s7f]/ agfpg'sf] ;§f lsg pm k/d]Zj/lt/ kms{]g < h;/L p;n] k/d]Zj/nfO{ 5gf]6 ug{ cfˆgf] x[bo s7f]/ agfof] < To;/L g} k/d]Zj/n] cfkm' nfO{ pm k|lt s7f]/ ;flat ug{'eof] hxfF kmf/fn] 5f]8]sf lyP - k|:yfg %M@ _ . pTklQ $!M#*–#( #*= clg kmf/f]n] pgLx?nfO{ eg], ælogL h:tf] k/d]Zj/sf cfTdf ePsf] cGo s'g dflg; xfdL kfpg ;S5f}+ <Æ #(= ta kmf/f]n] o';'kmnfO{ eg], æk/d]Zj/n] ltdLnfO{ ;a} s'/f b]vfOlbg'ePsf] 5, / ltdL h:tf] rt'/ / a'l4dfg dflg; c? 5}g .Æ /f]dL (M!&–!* !&= ls wd{zf:qn] kmf/f]nfO{ eG5, æd d]/f] zlQm tFdf b]vfpF, / ;f/f k[YjLdf d]/f] gfpFsf] 3f]if0ff ul/cf];\ eGg] clek|fon] d}n] tFnfO{ v8f u/] .Æ !*= o;sf/0f pxfFn] OR5f ug{'ePsfx?nfO{ pxfFn] s[k fug{'xG5, / pxfFn] OR5f ug{'ePsfx?sf] x[bonfO{ pxfFn] s7f]/ kfg{'x'G5 .

[7.65]

k/d]Zj/nfO{ k|]d ug{] pxfF dfly e/f];f ug{]x? dfly cfˆgf] cg'u|x b]vfpg'x'G5 / pxfFdfly e/f];f gug{] x?nfO{ s;/L s|f]w b]vfpg' eGg] s'/fsf] k|:t'lt xfdL oxfF k|i6 ;Fu b]vfpg ;S5f} . s] xfdLnfO{ s;n] agfof] < oL s'/fx? ug{ lsg xfdLnfO{ 5gf}6 ug{'eof] eg]/ eGg ;S5f} < s] ;[li6stf{n] xfdLnfO{ o;/L tof/L u/fpg' ePsf] pxfFsf] OR5f / of]hgf k'/f ug{' ePsf] s'/f hfot xf]Og /, s] pxfFn] o;f] ug{ kfpg'x'Gg / <

[7.66]

ul/a / lgd'vf agfpg ;Sbf] s] k/d]Zj/n] s;}nfO{ wgL / k|ltefzfnL agfpg ;Sg' x'Gg / < pxfFn] /fhf / lesf/L agfpg' eof] xfdLnfO{ b'a} cfjZostf 5 . olb k/d]Zj/ wdL{ / kljq x'g'x'G5 eg] pxfF s|f]w x'g' klg :jefljs xf] . xfdL h:t} ;hfo lbg'kg{] vfnsf x?nfO{ olb pxfFn] xfˆgf] k|]d / cg'u|x lbg'x'G5 eg] s] of] l7s s'/f ePg / < pxfFnfO{ k|]d ug{]x? dfly cfˆgf] w}o{tfnfO{ /xg lbP . pxfFn] pxfFsf] dxfgtf dlxdfnfO{ kl/rLt u/fpg'x'G5, h'g pxfFn] klxn] blv g} of]hgf agfpg' ePsf] lyof] . xfdL olx s'/f klg eG5f} pxfFn] ox'bLnfO{ dfq xf]Og cGohfltnfO{ klg af]nfpg' eof] . /f]dL (M!(–@$ !(= ta ltdL dnfO{ eGg]5f}, æk/d]Zj/n] cem} lsg bf]if nufpg'x'G5 < lsgsL pxfFsf] OR5fnfO{ s;}n] lj/f]w ug{ ;S5 <Æ @)= t/ dflg; eP/ k/d]Zj/nfO{ hjfkm nfUg] ltdl sf] xf} < s] 9fn]/ agfPsf[ a:t/n] cfkm}nfO{ agfpg]fnO{ ædnfO{ lsg o:tf] agfPsf] <Æ eG5 / < @!= olb k/d]Aj/n] cfˆgf] s|f]w k|s6 ug{] / cfˆgf] zlQm k|bz{g ug{nfO{ lagfzsf] nflu tof/ ul/Psf] s|f]wsf kfqnfO{ cToGt w}o{;fy ;xg'ePsf] 5 eg]], s] eof] t < @#= olb dlxdfsf] lglDt cl3af6} tof/ kfg{'ePsf] pxfFsf] s[kf–kfqx?nfO{ cfˆgf] dlxdfsf] ;Dklt k|s6 ug{]nfO{ pxfFn] o;f] ug{'eof] . @$= cyf{t xfdL, h;nfO{ ox'bLx?af6 dfq xf]Og, t/ cGohfltx?af6 klg pxfFn] af]nfpg'ePsf] 5 eg], s] eof] t < Plkm;L !M#–!$ n] lv|i6 ePsf] sf/0f cflzl;t ePsf] s'/f atfpF5 .

[7.67]

lv|i6df /xg' eGg] s'/f 5gf}6sf] s'/f xf], o"xGgf !M!@ Ps k6s km]l/ hf] lv|i6nfO{ u|x0f uØf} xfdL of] ;+;f/sf] hu xfNg' eGbf klg klxnf g} r'lgPsf xf}+ . h'g s'/f klxnf g} lktfn] 5'6fP/ /flvlbg'ePsf] lyof], ls xfdln] pxfFsf] k'qnfO{ :jLsf/ ug{] 5f} . ljZjf;sf] sbd rfNg] pxfF – h;nfO{ k|]d u5{g\ _ sf] cufl8 kljq / bf]if /lxt x'g' k5{ . Plkm;L !M$ pxfFsf] ;fd'Gg] kljq / lgisnÍ xf]cf} eg]/ ;+;f/sf] pTklQeGbf cl3 af6} pxfFn] xfdLnfO{ r'Gg'eof] .

[7.68]

lv|i6 dfly xfdLn] u/]sf] ljZjf; 4f/f pxfFn] xfdLnfO{ pxfFsf] :juL{odf wd{;Gtfg agfpg] s'/f k'j{ lglZrt ug{'eof] lsgsL of] s'/fn] pxfFnfO{ cfgGb lbbF5 . Plkm;L !M% pxfFsf] OR5fsf] nIocg';f/ v|Li6 o]z' 4f/f k|]ddf pxfFn] xfdLnfO{ cfˆgf] ;Gtfg x'gnfO{ cl3af6} lgo'Qm ug{'ePsf] lyof] .

[7.69]

pxfFnfO{ u|x0f ug{] ;a} k|lt cfˆgf] cg'u|x km}nfP/ pxfFn] of] sfd ug{' eof] .

[7.70]

v|Li6n] kfk /lxt /ut aufP/ ;w}sf] nflu ;a}sf] nflu kfk Ifdfsf] ;Dej u/fpg'eof] . lv|i6sf] lktf k|ltsf] cf1fsfl/tf / pxfFnfO{ k|]d ug{]x? k|lt cg'u|x xf] .

[7.71]

of] s'/f a'‰gsf] nflu pxfFn] xfdLnfO{ nuftf/ zd zlQm lbg'x'G5 . Plkm;L !M*–( (= lsgsl ;Dk'0f{ a'l4 / cfGtfl/s ;demdf v|Li6df /fVg'ePsf] pb]Zocg';f/ pxfFn] cfˆgf] OR5fsf] /x:o xfdLnfO{ hfGg lbg'ePsf] 5 . *= h'g cg'u|x pxfFn] xfdLnfO{ k|z:t dfqdf lbg'eof] .

[7.72]

k/d]Zj/n] k'j{ of]hgf v|Li6df ePsf hlt dflg; / :ju{ k'Ug] ;a}nfO{ af]nfpg' / pxfFn] r'Gg'ePsf] x?nfO{ e]nf ug{' xf] . Plkm;L !M!) tfls ;do k"/f ePkl5 :ju{ / k[YjLdf ePsf ;a} yf]sx? v|Li6sf] cwLgdf cfpmg\ .

[7.73]

pxfFn] wd{ k'q÷k'qL agfpg'ePsfx?nfO{ pxfFn] cfˆgf] sbf/ agfpg] s'/f klg cufl8 g} lglZrt ul/;Sg' ePsf] 5 . Plkm;L !M!! pxfFdf, h;n] ;a} s'/f cfˆgf] OR5fsf] of]hgfcg';f/ k"/f ug{'x'G5, cfˆgf] clek|fo cg';f/ .

[7.74]

tfls h;n] v|Li6dfly klxn] ljZjf; ul/ pgLx?n] :t'lt k|+zf;sf] lglDt lhpg ;sf} eg]/ pxfFdf g} lgo'Qm ug{'ePsf] 5 / 5fGg'ePsf] 5 .

[7.75]

xfd|f] hLjg pxfFsf] lglDt lhP/ k/d]Zj/sf] ;To jrgnfO{ ;'g]/ ljZjf; / e/f];f ul/ pxfFnfO{ cfˆgf] k|lt1f cg';f/ kljq cfTdfsf] 5fk nufOlbg'ePsf] 5 . h'grflx pxfFsf] cfudg ;Fu k'0f{ ?kdf d'lQm gkfpGh]n;Dd ;xfotfsf] lglDt xf] . Plkm;L !M!#M!$ !#= ltdLx? h;n] ;Tosf] jrg cyf{t cfˆgf] d'lQmsf] ;';dfrf/ ;'Gof} / pxfFdf ljZjf; uØf}, pxfFdf g} ltdLx?nfO{ k|lt1f ul/Psf kljq cfTdfsf] 5fk nufOPsf] lyof] . !$= k/d]Zj/sf] cfˆgf] ;Dklt cyf{t xfdLx?n] xfd|f] k"0f{ p4f/ gkfP;Dd pxfFsf] dlxdfsf] k|z+;fsf] lglDt kljq cfTdf xfd|f] pt/flwsf/sf] a}gf x'g'x'G5 .

[7.76]

ca xfdL o;f] eGg ;S5f} ls h;n] lktfsf] OR5f k'/f u5{ p v|Li6sf] efO, alxgL jf cfdf aG5 . dlQ !@M@). lsgeg] h;n] :ju{df x'g'x'g] d]/f lktfsf] OR5f kfng ub{5, ToxL g} d]/f] efO, / d]/L alxgL, / d]/L cfdf x'g\ . o"xGgf !M!@ d}n] ltdLx?nfO{ s'/f n]Vg t w]/} 5, t/ sfuh / d;Ln] tL d n]Vg rfxGgF . t/ xfdLx?sf] cfgGb k"0f{ xf]; egL d ltdLx? sxfF g} cfpg] / cfdg];fdg] eP/ s'/f ug{] cfzf u5{' .

[7.77]

;t k|ltzt l7s x'g] ul/ k/d]Zj/n] k':tf} k':tf blv cfˆgf] cudaQmfx? 4f/f 36gfx?sf] af/]df k|sfz kfb{} cfO/xg' ePsf] 5 . of] ;Totfn] ;a}nfO{ olx ;Nnfx lbG5 ls k/d]Zj/n] ;a} s'/fx?nfO{ lgoGq0fdf /fVg'x'G5 / To;sf] nflu dflg;nfO{ ;xeflu u/fpg' x'G5 . of] z'?df o;/L b]vf k5{ ls k/d]Zj/ cfTdfn] klxnf, eg['{x'G5 . k/d]Zj/n] dflg;nfO{ bfofF jf jfFof lt/ tfG5 h;/L 3f]8f ;jf/n] nufd 4f/f 3f]8fnfO{ bfofF afofF ug{] u5{ . xfdLn] of] s'/f klg ofb u/f}, ls k/d]Zj/sf] g t z'? 5 g t cGTo . pxfF cgGt b]lv cgGt;Dd cl:tTjdf x'g'x'G5 . k/d]Zj/n] cfˆgf] pb]Zo k"/f ug{ s'g} klg AolQmnfO{ s'g} klg s'/fdf w}o{ ug{ ;Sg' x'G5 . olb k/d]Zj/ s'g} cudaQmfsf] cufl8 ;kgfdf jf bz{gdf b]vf kg{' x'G5 / pxfFsf] dflg;sf] lglDt ;Gb]z 5f]8\g' x'G5 , To; cj:yfdf olb cudjQmfn] jf dflg;x?n] To;nfO{ ulDe/ ?kdf glnPsf] v08df c? g} JolQmnfO{ p7fpg ;Sg'x'G5 . ha O;|fPnn] k/d]Zj/af6 6f9f eO{ / d'lQmbftf - dl;xL _ nfO{ OGsf/ u/] . k/d]Zj/n] pxfFsf] /fHodf ;a}sf] lglDt v|Li6sf] gfpFdf 9f]sf vf]nL lbg'ePsf] h'g s'/f /f]dLsf] !! cWofodf xfdLn] kfpFb5f}+ .

[7.78]

k/d]Zj/af6 6f9f ePsfx? h;n] pxfFsf af]nfj6nfO{ ;'Gg ;Sb}gg\, k/d]Zj/sf lgodx? u|x0f ug{ ;Sb}gg\ t/ k/d]Zj/;+u /lx/x]sfx? hf] cf1fsf/Ltfdf hLO/x]sf 5g\ / pgLx?n] d08nLnfO{ k/d]Zj/n] s] – s] elg/xg'ePsf] 5 eGg] s'/f ;'G5g\ . k/d]Zj/n] cf1fsf/LtfnfO{ arfO/fVg' x'g]5 . pgLx?sf sf/0f k/d]Zj/n] arfpg] xf]Og t/ k/d]Zj/k|lt pgLx?sf] k|]dn] ubf{ xf] . pgLx?n] cfˆgf] OR5f / cf1fsf/Ltf k/d]Zj/sf] lglDt lbPsf 5g\ - ! zd'Pn !%M@@_ . pxfFsf e]8fx?n] pxfFsf] cfjfh ;'Gg]5g\ - o'xGgf !)M$ _ . olx cd'No s'/f4f/ k/d]Zj/ dflg;sf] hLjgdf pxfFsf] OR5f / of]hgf k'/f ug{'x'G5 .

[7.79]

pxfFaf6 6f9f ePsf, pxfFnfO{ OGsf/ u/]sf, pxfFsf] lj?bdf nfu]sfx?4f/f klg k/d]Zj/n] cfˆgf] OR5f / of]hgf k'/f ug{'x'G5 . n'l;km/, kmf/f], / ox'bfnfO{ pxfFn] To;/L g} k|of]u ug{'eof] . v|Li6sf] bf];|f] cfudgsf] af/]df ;+;f/df dflg;x?n] ;do lglZrt ug{' z}tflgs xf], h;/L xfdL dQL @$ cWofodf x]5f} . pxfFsf] ;[li6df cGwsf/sf] zlQmn] sfd u/] klg k/d]Zj/sf] xftn] arfpg'x'G5 .

[7.80]

k"j{ lglZrt uGtJo / sldnfsf] kxf8 cd]l/sfsf] d?e'lddf a:g] Ps hgf JolQmn] cfkm'nfO{ Pslbg laxfg d?e'ldsf] la?jfdf lxl8/x]sf] kfof] . h;/L tfks|d a9\b} cfof], uld{ x'b} cfof], p;n] l;pF8Lsf] 5fofFsf] lztndf a;L cfkm'nfO{ 3fdb]lv hf]ufof] . To; lztndf p;n] w]/} sldnfx? b]Vof] / ltgLx?sf] ls|ofsnfk rfv nfUbf] tl/sfn] x]g{ yfNof] .

[7.81]

p;nfO{ of] yfxf eof] ls pgLx? 7"nf] ;~hfndf Ps csf{]nfO{ ;fxotf ub{} sfd ub{} lyP . ToxfF km'n kfg{] /fgL sldnf, pgsf] ;fydf a:g] c? sldnf, ;'/Iff lbg] sldnf h;n] vt/f cfOkbf{ ;'rgf lbG5g\, oL ;a} b]lv/x]sf] lyof] . sldnfx?sf] of] ls|ofsnfk cfZro{ nfUof] lyof] .

[7.82]

sldnfx? cfˆgf] zl// eGbf 7"nf] ef/L af]s]/ leq aflx/f ul//x]sf lyP . ha Pp6f sldnf af6f]df cfO/x]sf] jf uO/x]sf] e]§fPdf csf{] sldnfn] tfFtLdf cfˆgf] kfnf] kv{]/ a;]sf] / kfnf] cfPkl5 dfq uPsf] b[Zo ;fFRr} g} /fd|f] lyof] . s:tf] ldn]sf] ;+u7g . o;sf] cjnf]sg ug{]nfO{ sldnfn] 7"n} kf7 l;sfO/x]sf] lyof] . pgLx?nfO{ cfkm'n] s] ug{' kg{] xf] ;f] yfxf lyof] . pgLx?sf] cf–cfˆgf] 5'§} OR5f ePtf klg Psbd ldn]/ sfd ul//x]sf] lyP . of] b]v]/ pxfF ;f]Rg nfUg' eof] . k/d]Zj/sf] d08nL ljefuLo ?kdf sfd ug{sf] nflu of] c;n pbfx/0f x'g] lyof] .

[7.83]

Tof] dflg;nfO{ yfxf lyof] ls slt slt sldnfnfO{ a'‰g] / cfbfg k|bfg ug{] s'g} pkfo yfxf lyPg t/ p;n] sldnfx?nfO{ cfˆgf] OR5fg';f/ sfd ug{ nufpg] efjgfn] hldgaf6 Pp6f l;Gsf lnof], / ^ lkm6 uf]nf] Pp6f j[t h:t} afn'jfsf] kxf6 agfof] . p;sf] lrGx eGbf aflx/faf6 tL sldnfx?n] vfgf cf];f/L/x]sf] p;n] b]lv/x]sf] lyof] / p;n] ca sldnfn] s] ubf{ /x]5g\ eg]/ x]l//x]sf lyof] . tL sfd ug{] sldnfx? clt ulDe/ ePsf] b]Vof] . cem} ltgn] x]l//xof] . To;kl5 pgn] sldnf lxF8]sf] af6f]df cfuf] klg nufof] clg p;n] sldnfx? csf]{ af6f] afn'jfsf] kxf8 eP/ ofqf ul//x]sf] b]Vof] t/ d'v{tf k"j{s cfuf]sf] af6f] eP/ ofqf ug{]x? gi6 eP . ca pgn] ;f]Rg nfu] ls clnslt ePklg sldnfx?n] pgn] eg] h:t} u/] .

[7.84]

p;n] km]/L ;f]Rg nfUof] ls p;n] s'g} c? tl/sfn] sldnfx?nfO{ ToxL /fVg ;S5 ls < crfgs pleq Pp6f pkfo lg:Sof] . p;n] uf]hLaf6 Pp6f ld7fO lgsfNof] / To;nfO{ pgLx? k|j]z ug{] 9f]sf lt/ /fvL lbof] . ca ;a} sldnfx? ld7fO lt/ nflDsg yfn] / cfuf]af6 6f9f x'g k'u] . dflg;n] ;f]Rof], pgLx?nfO{ :jefj cg';f/ a'´]/ cfˆgf] OR5fdf 9fNg g;s] klg cfˆgf] pb]Zo rflx k'/f uØf}+ . p;n] sldnfnfO{ hDdf uØf} . olx s'/fnfO{ pb[t ub{} xfdLn] afOansf] k'/fgf] lgodnfO{ cfuf] / gofF lgodnfO{ ld7fOsf] ?kdf lng ;S5f} . h;/L o]z' v|Li6sf] /ut4f/ cg'u|x pknAw u/fOPsf] 5, xfdLnfO{ ;[li6 ug{'x'g] k/d]Zj/n] xfd|f] :jefj hfGg'x'G5 . pxfFn] of] hfGg'x'G5, ls xfdL e]8f jf sldnf h:t} xf}+, hf] a/flnPsf 5f} - oz}of %#M^ _ / pxfF of] klg hfGg'x'G5 ls s;/L cfkm'lt/ lvRg] eGg] s'/f . o; afx]s Wofg lbg' kg{] csf{] Pp6f a'Fbf klg 5 .

[7.85]

d …lgoGq0fÚ sf] ljifodf af]N5' . To; dflg;n] sldnfsf] AolQmut OR5fnfO{ slxNo} klg lgoGq0f u/]g . t/ pm k"/} If]q lgoGq0f lngdf ;kmn eof] . s;/L k"0f{ ?kn] :jtGqtf nfO{ lng] cEof; u/]/ lgoGq0fdf lng ;s] . s;}n] s;}sf] :jtGqtfnfO{ xgg\ ug{ kfpFb}g t t jftfj/0f a'em]/ ljz]if clwsf/ xft kfg{ kfpF5 . k/d]Zj/n] dflg;sf] :jtGqtf l5Gg nfUg' ePsf] xf]Og t/ pxfFsf] ;[li6nfO{ s;/L lgoGq0fdf /fVg ;lsG5 eGg] af/]df pxfFfnfO{ yfxf 5 . k/d]Zj/;Fu cfˆg} pkfo 5g\ . xfdLn] g} 5fg]sf cfuf]4f/f xfdL dfl/g ;S5f}, olb xfdL To;fnfO{ 5fG5f}+ eg], 5gf}6 xfd|f] xftdf 5 . clGtddf /f]dL %=* nfO{ xfdLn] dgg\ ug}k5{ . /f]dL %=* t/ k/d]Zj/n] xfd|f] lglDt pxfFsf] k|]d o;}df b]vfpg'x'G5 ls xfdL kfkL 5Fb} v|Li6 xfd|f] lglDt dg{'eof] .

[7.86]

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